The Iranian History 2000 AD

 


Ministry of Commerce Founded

Jan, 1, 2000 AD

Iranian Minister Dr. Mehdi Ghazanfari born 16 November 1960) is an Iranian politician who is the current Minister of Industries and Business since 3 August 2011. He was Minister of Commerce in the second cabinet of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad from 9 August 2009.The Ministry of Commerce of Iran was formed on January 1, 2000 under President Mohammad Khatami. It was the main organ of the government in charge of regulation and implementation of policies applicable to domestic and foreign trade. Its goals included:
• Implementing commercial strategies and regulations,
• Promoting exports,
• Development programs,
• Import and export regulations,
• Pricing of domestic commodities,
• Domestic and international trade fairs and exhibitions.
The Ministry of Commerce was also in charge of managing the process of accession to the WTO.
Both the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Industries and Mines were dissolved on August 3, 2011, and were superseded by the Ministry of Industries and Business.
The Ministry of Industries and Mines was the main organ of Iranian government in charge of regulation and implementation of policies applicable to industrial and mine sectors.
On August,3 2011, the Ministry of Industries and Business became the body responsible for regulation and implementation of policies applicable to domestic and foreign trade and also regulation and implementation of policies applicable to industrial and mine sectors that formed.
The short history of Ministry of Commerce in Iran is a good case study for applying Trial and Error in state institutions which is an experimental method of problem solving; also known as guess and check, rather than using scientific methods. Trial and error is usually a last resort for a particular problem, as there are a number of problems with it. For one, trial and error is tedious and monotonous. Also, it is very time and resource-consuming. Trial and Error is a characteristic of oriental approach in less developed countries in which people at top managerial levels with inadequate expertise and background spend less time in measuring and analysis and more time on fix and repair, thus wasting national resources without any responsibility or accountability.
Dr. Mehdi Ghazanfari is the current Minister of Industries and Business since 3 August 2011. He was Minister of Commerce in the second cabinet of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad from 9 August 2009. (Updated: Aug, 4, 2012)





Iran vs Asia All-Stars Soccer Game

Jan, 21, 2000 AD

Iranian Soccer star Ali Daei is the world's all-time leading goalscorer in international matches with 109 goals. In 1994 Daiee joined one of country's premier squads, Persepolis F.C. and in 1996 joined the Bundesliga with his team-mate Karim Bagheri.(Wikipedia) - On January 21, 2000, the Iranian national football team played against an Asian all-star side, in an exhibition testimonial match for Iranian captain Nader Mohammadkhani. Iran's lucky striker Ali Daei was simply unstoppable having scored a hat trick. Asian all-star's best chances were minute 42, when Ruslan Baltiev's header hit the woodwork. Another missed opportunity was Esam Salem's penalty on minute 66 that was saved by Davoud Fanaei.
The score was 5-0: Ali Daei 20', 22', 82', Ali Mousavi 44', Sirous Dinmohammadi 46'
Iranian soccer star Ali Daei is currently the world's all-time leading goal-scorer in international matches with 109 goals. He is currently coaching various teams in Iranian Premier League.
In March, 2012 Iran's state TV reported that the country's soccer legend Ali Daei was injured in a car crash and was recovering from head injuries. (Updated: Jul, 19, 2012)





US Official Admits Role In 1953 Coup

Mar, 17, 2000 AD

Pahlavi era Politician Dr. Hossein Fatemi smiles as Iran's youngest Ministry of Foreign Affairs and a close friend of Dr.Mosaddegh. Fatemi became martyr by firing squad on Nov, 10 1954 in Tehran, after the CIA backed coup on Aug, 19, 1953.(Wikipedia) - In a speech on March 17, 2000 before the American Iranian Council on the relaxation of U.S. sanctions against Iran, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright said: "In 1953, the United States played a significant role in orchestrating the overthrow of Iran's popular Prime Minister, Mohammad Mosaddegh. The Eisenhower administration believed its actions were justified for strategic reasons, but the coup was clearly a setback for Iran's political development and it is easy to see now why many Iranians continue to resent this intervention by America in their internal affairs."
Mosaddegh was removed from power in a coup on August, 19 1953, organized and carried out by the United States CIA at the request of the British MI6 which chose Iranian General Fazlollah Zahedi to succeed Mosaddegh.
While the coup is commonly referred to as Operation TP-Ajax after its CIA cryptonym, in Iran it is referred to as the 28 Mordad, after its date on the Iranian calendar. Mosaddegh was imprisoned for three years, and then he was put under house arrest until his death on March, 16, 1967.
The colonial British government had grown increasingly distressed over Mosaddegh's policies and was especially bitter over the loss of their control of the Iranian oil industry. Repeated attempts to reach a settlement had failed and in October 1952, Mosaddegh declared Britain an enemy, and cut all diplomatic relations.
Engulfed in a whole range of problems following World War II, Britain was unable to resolve the issue single-handedly and looked towards the United States for help. Initially Americans opposed British policies. After U.S. mediation had failed several times to bring about a settlement, American Secretary of State Dean Acheson concluded that the British were "destructive and determined on a rule or ruin policy in Iran."
The American position shifted in late 1952, when Dwight D. Eisenhower was put in power as U.S. President. In November and December, British intelligence officials suggested to American intelligence that the prime minister should be ousted. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill suggested to the incoming Eisenhower administration that Mosaddegh, despite his open disgust with socialism, was, or would become, dependent on the pro-Soviet Toodeh Party, resulting in Iran "increasingly turning towards communism" and towards the Soviet sphere at a time of high Cold War fears. After the Eisenhower administration had entered office in early 1953, the United States and the United Kingdom agreed to work together toward Mosaddegh's removal and began to publicly denounce Mosaddegh's policies for Iran as harmful to the country. In the meantime the already precarious alliance between Dr. Mosaddegh and Ayatollah Kashani was severed in January 1953, when Kashani opposed Mosaddegh's demand that his increased powers be extended for a period of one year.
In March 1953, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles directed the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which was headed by his younger brother Allen Dulles, to draft plans to overthrow Mosaddegh. On 4 April 1953, Allen Dulles approved $1 million to be used "in any way that would bring about the fall of Mosaddegh". Soon the CIA's Tehran station started to launch a propaganda campaign against Mosaddegh. Finally, according to The New York Times, in early June, American and British intelligence officials met again, this time in Beirut, and put the finishing touches on the strategy. Soon afterward, according to his later published accounts, the chief of the CIA's Near East and Africa division, Kermit Roosevelt, Jr. the grandson of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, arrived in Tehran to direct it. In 2000, The New York Times made partial publication of a leaked CIA document titled, Clandestine Service History – Overthrow of Premier Mosaddegh of Iran – November 1952-August 1953. This document describes the point-by-point planning of the coup by agent Donald Wilbur, and execution conducted by the American and British governments. The New York Times published this critical document with the names omitted. The New York Times also limited its publication to scanned image (bitmap) format, rather than machine-readable text. This document was eventually published properly – in text form, and fully unexpurgated. The complete CIA document is now web published. The word ‘blowback' appeared for the very first time in this document.
The plot, known as Operation Ajax, centered on convincing Iran's monarch to issue a decree to dismiss Mosaddegh from office, as he had attempted some months earlier. But the Shah was terrified to attempt such a dangerously unpopular move, and it would take much persuasion and many U.S. funded meetings, which included bribing his sister Ashraf Pahlavi to successfully change his mind.
Mosaddegh became aware of the plots against him and grew increasingly wary of conspirators acting within his government. According to Dr. Donald N. Wilber, who was involved in the plot to remove Dr. Mosaddegh from power, in early August, Iranian CIA operatives pretending to be socialists and nationalists threatened Muslim clerics with "savage punishment if they opposed Mosaddegh," thereby giving the impression that Mosaddegh was cracking down on dissent, and stirring anti-Mosaddegh sentiments within the religious community. A referendum to dissolve parliament and give the prime minister power to make law was submitted to voters, and it passed with 99 percent approval, 2,043,300 votes to 1300 votes against. On or around Aug. 16, Parliament was suspended indefinitely, and Mosaddegh's emergency powers were extended.
In August 1953, the Shah finally agreed to Mosaddegh's overthrow, after Roosevelt told that the U.S. would proceed with him or without him and formally dismissed the Prime Minister in a written decree, an act explicitly permitted under the constitution. As a precautionary measure, he flew to Baghdad and from there hid safely in Rome. He actually signed two decrees, one dismissing Mosaddegh and the other nominating the CIA's choice, General Fazlollah Zahedi, as Prime Minister. These decrees, called Farmans, were specifically written as dictated by Donald Wilbur the CIA architect of the plan, which were designed as a major part of Wilbur's strategy to give the impression of legitimacy to the secret coup, as can be read in the declassified plan itself which bears his name. Wilbur was later given a letter of commendation by Allen Dulles, CIA head, for his work. It too is now declassified, and appears in Wilbur's autobiography.
Soon, massive protests, engineered by Roosevelt's team, took place across the city and elsewhere with tribesmen paid to be at the ready to assist the coup. Anti- and pro-monarchy protesters, both paid by Roosevelt, violently clashed in the streets, looting and burning mosques and newspapers, leaving almost 300 dead. The pro-monarchy leadership, chosen, hidden and finally unleashed at the right moment by the CIA team, led by retired army General and former Minister of Interior in Mosaddegh's cabinet, Fazlollah Zahedi joined with underground figures such as the Rashidian brothers and local strongman Shaban Jafari, to gain the upper hand on 19 August 1953 (28 Mordad). The military joined on cue: pro-Shah tank regiments stormed the capital and bombarded the prime minister's official residence, on Roosevelt's cue, according to his book. Mosaddegh managed to flee from the mob that set in to ransack his house, and, the following day, surrendered to General Zahedi, who was meanwhile set up by the CIA with makeshift headquarters at the Officers' Club. Mosaddegh was arrested at the Officers' Club and transferred to a military jail shortly after. On 22 August, Mohammad Reza Shah returned from exile.
Zahedi's new government soon reached an agreement with foreign oil companies to form a consortium and "restore the flow of Iranian oil to world markets in substantial quantities", giving the U.S. and Great Britain the lion's share of Iran's oil. In return, the U.S. massively funded the Shah's resulting government, including his army and secret police force, SAVAK, until the Shah's overthrow in 1979. Mosaddegh's supporters were rounded up, tortured or executed. The minister of Foreign Affairs and the closest associate of Mosaddegh: Hossein Fatemi was executed by order of the Shah's military court. The order was carried out by firing squad on October 29, 1953.
After a long silence that began in Iran after the coup, in 1979 Iranians revolted against the puppet regime and overthrew the dictatorship. In a referendum which took place on April, 1, 1979, Iranians voted for a new form of government, the Islamic Republic.
Although US categorically denied involvement in the 1953 coup, for Iranians it was the obvious thing and the true face of neo-colonialism was revealed to the world in time. Corporations became the new form of deceitful cover used by descendents of once sea-pirates and slave-traders to give their inhumane acts a legit appearance while the oppressed nations unite and tune in revolution songs. (Updated: May, 8, 2012)





U.S. Ends A Few Sanctions Imposed On Iran

Mar, 18, 2000 AD

Tehran 2009 Iranian boys hold US and Iranian Flags during Takhti Wrestling Cup as part of sportsman diplomacy.As a Norooz gesture, U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright announced lifting a few economic sanctions against Iran and declared a commitment to take extensive steps toward ending two decades of hostility. It was the most explicit overture towards normalizing economic ties with Iran. It signaled the prospect of ending such sanctions as the bans on American investment in Iran's oil industry and the blocking of large loans to Tehran by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Under American law, Washington cannot support loans for Iran through the I.M.F. or the World Bank until Iran is removed from the State Department's list of nations that support terrorism.
Iran also welcomed lifting of a U.S. ban on imports of Iranian carpet, caviar and pistachios, three main export items after petroleum and gas. The move was also considered as a positive signal towards reformists gaining majority in parliament elections.
Accusing Iran of sponsoring terrorism, a cliché branding of countries like Cuba and Libya that oppose a unipolar hegemony, Washington blocked Iran's 12 billion assets in the U.S. and passed a law imposing a sanction on companies investing in Iranian oil and gas industries. This gave an opportunity to rivals to get a share of the huge Iranian market that is also a gateway connecting East to the West. A failed U.S. sanctions policy has forced Iran to purchase a substantial amount of commodities from U.S. competitors and constantly changed the patterns of consumption in the region.
On Sept, 15, The United States and Iran took part in talks at foreign minister level for the first time since they broke relations more than twenty years ago. U.S. Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright, and the Iranian Foreign Minister, Kamal Kharrazi, joined their counterparts from six other countries at the United Nations to discuss Afghanistan. Reformist Iranian president, Mohammad Khatami started an active foreign policy showing a smiling side of the Islamic regime to the world.
The two countries broke diplomatic relations after extremists occupied the U.S. embassy in Tehran in 1979. However, hopes of normalization of ties faded away after neo-conservatives took office in the U.S. , leading to a rogue state policy that created another wave of anti-Americanism in the world; a forgotten fact after the Vietnam war.
The gesture was not real and under the new US administration hostilities restarted:
In June 2005, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13382 freezing the assets of individuals connected with Iran's nuclear program. In June 2007, the U.S. state of Florida enacted a boycott on companies trading with Iran and Sudan, while New Jersey's state legislature was considering similar action.
On June 24, 2010, the United States Senate and House of Representatives passed the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (CISADA), which President Obama signed into law July 1, 2010. The CISADA greatly enhanced restrictions in Iran. Such restrictions included the rescission of the authorization for Iranian-origin imports for articles such as rugs, pistachios, and caviar.
Although US sanctions have had a negative impact on the Iranian economy, Iranians have chosen the path of Resistence; shrugging off known imperial attitudes of the West towards Iran. In 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini, the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran labeled the United States as the Great Satan and it was seen as a hardliner stance back then but as time passes by, it is beginning to make more sense. Iranian revolutionary ideas are now travelling at the speed of light around the globe and they will eventually change the world order. (Updated: May, 8, 2012)





Rafsanjani Quits Iranian Parliament

May, 25, 2000 AD

Parliament representatives make a little assembly on the Majlis floorAkbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, the former president of Iran, resigned from the new parliament giving up his seat because of what he described as a campaign of propaganda against him by reformists. Rafsanjani had become a figurehead for conservatives in their power struggle with the reformists who dominated the parliament after elections.
Rafsanjani still remained influential and exercised considerable power as the head of the Guardian Council and other similar bodies that were created to ensure iron grip on Iranian political system. Ironically, he ran for the president in 2005 with slogans of moderation and reform against Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. (Updated: Mar, 26, 2009)





Top Level Contact With Iraq

Nov, 14, 2000 AD

Iranian front : Collection of photos from Iran Iraq war scenesPresident Mohammad Khatami met one of the most senior Iraqi leaders since the two countries went to war 20 years ago. President Khatami held talks in a guest palace in the Qatari capital Doha with Izzat Ibrahim, Saddam Hussein's number two.
Few details have emerged from the meeting, attended by both the Iraqi and Iranian foreign ministers however Khatami expressed hopes for a new chapter in bilateral relations adding that patience was needed in normalizing those relations but if they settled their differences then economic prosperity would be possible.
Mutual distrust between Iran and Iraq persist 12 years after a disastrous eight-year war. Armed opposition groups from both countries are hiding on either side of each other's borders. Small explosions in Baghdad and Tehran have been blamed on these groups, which have little support among the wider populations of each country. Both countries have also yet to complete their exchange of the last remaining prisoners of war and there is also dispute over war reparations.
Both countries are trying to overcome obstacles as they emerge from years of US imposed isolation sharing a determination to rid the region of western military forces. Once the most powerful countries in the Persian Gulf, Iran and Iraq are determined to cooperate and the significance of the talks at these high-levels held in Qatar is that both countries stressed the need for more security co-operation. (Updated: Mar, 26, 2009)





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