The Iranian History 1989 AD

 


University Of Yazd Inaugurated

Feb, 7, 1989 AD

The yard of administrive building of the University of Yazd. After its foundation in 1988, the University of Yazd witnessed a period of rapid growth ever since. The university offers degrees in Ph.D. (12), Masters (43), and Bachelors (59) levels.After the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Ayatollah Mohammad Seddoughi and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khatami started efforts to build a university in Yazd. In late 1986, the Ministry of Higher Education decided on establishing a university in Yazd. On Aug, 23, 1987, during a meeting at governor's office project outlines were approved. In September Prime Minister Mir Hossein Mousavi started the foundation of the University of Yazd during a ceremony on a field of 300 acres.
On Feb, 7, 1989, the University of Yazd was officially inaugurated by endowment of 38 students under presidency of Dr. Jalil Shahi.
After its foundation in 1988, the University of Yazd witnessed a period of rapid growth ever since. The university offers degrees in Ph.D. (12), Masters (43), and Bachelors (59) levels.
Colleges:
The University currently has 5 main faculties as follows:
Faculty of Art: Ever since it's founding, the College of Architecture has built up a national reputation for excellence, and is widely recognized as one of the leading academic departments of architecture in Iran. The college has been visited by notables such as Arata Isozaki and Rem Koolhaas.
Faculty of Engineering: Hosts the departments of Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Mining Engineering, and Textile Engineering.
Faculty of Humanities: Hosts 15 separate departments.
Faculty of Natural Resources: Consists of 30 academic members active in 3 departments namely Watershed & Range Management, Environmental Engineering, and Land Use & Reclamation of Dry Land.
Faculty of Sciences: Hosts of departments of Pure & Applied Mathematics, Statistics, Computer Science, Chemistry, and Physics. (Updated: Oct, 24, 2012)





Death Decree For Rushdie

Feb, 14, 1989 AD

Ayatollah Komeini Smiles Air France AirplaneAyatollah Khomeini issues a fatwa calling for death of Salman Rushdie after he published a book called The Satanic Verses in which he allegedly mocks Quran. Khomeini's decree backfires, bringing much fame and fortune to the Bombay born English writer who met with president Clinton at the white house in 1993 and was honored by the Queen of England with knighthood in 2007. On the other hand Rushdie found lots of support from intellectuals all around the world although his book was a poorly written fiction according to many critiques. (Updated: Jan, 30, 2008)





Ayatollah Khomeini Died

Jun, 4, 1989 AD

Ayatollah Khamenei riding in a peykan smoking cigarettesIranians mourned the death of Ayatollah Khomeini, the founder of the Islamic revolution of Iran. He was buried at Behesht-Zahra cemetery and construction of a gigantic mausoleum began right after his death. A couple of years later his son Ahmad also died on March, 17, 1995. He represented an uncompromising face of the Islamic revolution. Khomeini was succeeded by Ayatollah Ali Khamenei as the new spiritual leader. The IRI constitution improvises a leader assigned by a special assembly of clerics as the head of the state making the republic resemble a monarchy, hence replacing democracy with theocracy. (Updated: Dec, 17, 2008)





New Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei

Jun, 5, 1989 AD

Ayatollah Khamenei attending a book fair in 2007Ayatollah Khamenei was appointed as the new Supreme Leader after Ayatollah Khomeini suddenly died. Khamenei served twice as President, once after assassination of President Rajayi, he won elections in October 1981 with more than %95 of the 16 million votes cast, and he was elected again in November 1985. By two thirds of the votes, he was chosen as the new Supreme Leader by the Assembly of Experts. The idea of Supreme Leader was developed by Ayatollah Khomeini as the highest political and religious authority; such divine power above public vote has turned Iran into a theocracy.
Born on July, 16, 1939 in Mashhad, he went to clerics school in Najaf in 1957. Very shortly after that, he continued his studies in Qom. Because of his anti-Shah activities, he was first arrested and sent to jail in 1964. He served 6 times in jail until his release in 1975, he was sent to the city of Iranshahr.
He took an active role during the 1979 revolution and was appointed as the Friday Imam and a member of the Revolutionary Council. He was the head of the Supreme Defense Council, when an assassination attempt seriously injured him in June, 1981. A bomb, concealed in a tape recorder at a press conference, exploded beside him. His right hand has been malfunctioning ever since.
Khamenei's new status as Supreme Leader started with controversies. He was not even an Ayatollah in 1989 which raised voices of discontent among some high ranking clerics. In 1994, he was declared Marja. However, some dissident grand ayatollahs have declined to recognize Khamenei as Marja. As a supporter of scientific progress, he was among the first clerics to authorize stem cell research cloning.
Khamenei has been the target of some international right groups for his policies limiting press freedom and supression of dissidents but he has proved to be following a milder and more logical path. (Updated: May, 17, 2009)





Hashemi Rafsanjani Elected President

Jul, 28, 1989 AD

Tehran's Majlis (Parliament) session Approval of prime minister Rejayi cabinet of minister Vote Sep,2, 19605th presidential election: From a total of 79 nominees for the presidential race, 77 were disqualified leaving only two presidential candidates. Of 30,139,598 Iranians eligible to vote 16,409,353 people participated in the election marking another low %54.4 participation rate. Mr. Rafsanjani leaded the race with %94.52 of the votes. His presidency started with a substantial change in the constitution that gave executive duties of the prime minister to the president, thus; the 5th president started his government without a prime minister for the first time.
He was born in 1934 in a small village near Rafsanjan. He was soon attracted to becoming a clergyman and went to Qom. Meanwhile he continued political activities an was arrested several times. 4 months after the revolution he became target of a terror attempt by the Forghan group. Before presidency, he had many other key positions such as head of the Revolutionary Council and the parliament and currently is the head of a council that supervises laws and regulations for well-being of the regime. (Updated: Jan, 22, 2009)





IRI Helps Free US Hostages In Lebanon

Aug, 19, 1989 AD

Corpses of the victims of IR655 flight recovered from the Persian Gulf. The IR655 can be considered mass murder in broad day light, as a savage US military unit attacked an unarmed civilian passenger aircraft twice, clearly aiming to kill on July 3, 1988.Eight U.S. hostages were being held in Lebanon and the Reagan administration was struggling to get them back. On Aug, 19, 1989, Iran offered to assist the American government to get the prisoners back, but wanted the U.S. to help free Iranian diplomats kidnapped in Lebanon.
The Lebanon hostage crisis ended with European mediation and investment by Syria and Iran following the end of the Iran–Iraq War, and with promises to Hezbollah that it could remain armed following the end of the Lebanese Civil War and that France and US would not seek revenge against it.
Iranian officials had been kidnapped on July 5, 1982 by Christian militia Forces (AKA Phalangists) 40 km north of Beirut. The Iranians who have not been released to-date are Ahmad Motevasselian, Mohsen Mousavi, Kazem Akhaven and Taghi Rastegar Moghaddam. Their fate was never determined but they are presumably dead. (Updated: Aug, 23, 2011)





1st First Iranian Vice President

Sep, 1, 1989 AD

A propaganda poster showing Ayatollah Khamenei mourning Imam Khomeini's death hangs in a clinicHassan Ebrahim Habibi was the 1st First Vice President of Iran from Sep, 1, 1989 to Sep, 11, 2001, eight years under President Rafsanjani and then four years under President Khatami. He was followed by Mohammad Reza Aref in Khatami's second term.
A constitutional referendum was held in Iran on 28 July 1989, alongside presidential elections. Approved by 97.6% of voters, it was the first and so far the only time the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been amended. It made several changes to articles 5, 107, 109, 111, and added article 176. It eliminated the need for the Supreme Leader of the country to be a Marja, it eliminated the post of Prime Minister, and it created a Supreme National Security Council.
Thus the political office of Prime Minister ended on Aug, 3, 1989.
Before his vice presidency, Habibi was the Minister of Justice under Prime Minister Mousavi. He was also the spokesman for the Council of Revolution of Iran in 1979.
Habibi who holds a PhD. in law and sociology was among the main architects of the first draft of Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran after the Iranian Revolution, which was later passed for more discussion to an elected Assembly of Experts for Constitution.
First Vice President took over some of the responsibilities of Prime Minister. According to Article 124, First Vice President will be chairing the board of ministers and coordinate the other vice presidencies, if let by the President. According to Article 131, First Vice President takes over as acting President in cases where the President in incapacitated, but only if permitted by the Supreme Leader. According to the same Article, First Vice President (or anyone serving as acting President) must make sure that a new president is elected in fifty days.
Currently, First Vice President under Mr. Ahmadinejad is Mohammad Reza Rahimi. (Updated: Aug, 24, 2012)





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