The Iranian History 1988 AD


Imam Khomeini's Letter To Gorbachev

Jan, 3, 1988 AD

An autumn afternoon in 2009, Tehran's Saint Sarkis Church 2009 in Karimkhan Zand st. A building size poster of Imam Khomeini is seen in the back sending a strong message: Dear Khomeini, we'll never put down the flag you've raised.(FNA) - The Iranian Delegation headed by Ayatollah Javadi Amoli left Tehran for Moscow on January 3rd, 1988 and returned to Tehran the day after. They stayed in Moscow for 23 hours and were given a warm welcome by prominent Russian officials and Moscow Friday prayer leader.
Before the official meeting of the delegation with the former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, no contact was made with the head of the delegation, because the trip was just for submitting the message and clarifying its deep content. On January 7, 1989 an Iranian delegation met with Gorbachev at the Kremlin Palace at 11 AM.
The message was read with delineating some important points. Then the Kremlin’s special interpreters translated it for Mr. Gorbachev and two other people that attended the meeting. If a point was not clear for the interpreter, he asked and after understanding the point translated it to Gorbachev. During the 65 minutes that took reading the message and translating it, translators and Gorbachev took notes.
The Soviet leader listened to the message carefully. The letter came after the UN Security Council Resolution 598 when Iran had entered the post-war reconstruction process. The content of the letter was completely secret and except Imam Khomeini none of the Iranian authorities knew about it.
Here's the English translation of Imam Khomeini's letter to Mikhail Gorbachev.
In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful
Your Excellency Mr. Gorbachev,
Chairman of the Presidium of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
With due wishes for the happiness and prosperity of Your Excellency and the people of the Soviet Union,
Since your assumption of office there has been the impression that Your Excellency, in analyzing world political events, particularly those pertaining to the Soviet Union, have found yourself in a new era of reassessment, change and confrontation; and your initiative in dealing with the realities of the world is quite likely to bring about changes that would result in upsetting the equations of power dominating the world. I have therefore found it necessary to bring certain matters to your attention.
Even if your new approach and decisions are merely used as a means to overcome the party crisis, and, to solve some of the problems confronting your people, your courage in re-appraising a school of thought that has for decades enchained the revolutionary youth of the world behind its iron curtain is indeed worthy of praise. If, however, you are considering taking a further step forward, the first thing that will ensure your success is that you re-evaluate your predecessors' policy of obliterating God and religion from society, a policy that has no doubt given the heaviest blow to the Soviet people. Rest assured that this is the only way whereby world problems can be dealt with realistically.
Of course it is possible that as a result of wrong economic policies of former Communist authorities, the Western world, an illusory heaven, will appear to be fascinating; but the truth lies elsewhere. If you hope, at this Juncture, to solve the economic problems of socialism and communism by appealing to the center of the Western capitalism, you will, far from remedying any ill of your society, commit a mistake which those to come will have to erase. For, if Marxism has come to a deadlock in its social and economic policies, capitalism has also bogged down, in this as well as in other respects though in a different form.
Mr. Gorbachev,
Reality must be faced. The main problem confronting your country is not one of private ownership, freedom and economy; your problem is the absence of true faith in God, the very problem that has dragged, or will drag, the West to vulgarism and an impasse. Your main problem is the prolonged and futile war you have waged against God, the source of existence and creation.
Mr. Gorbachev,
It is clear to everybody that from now on communism will only have to be found in museums of the world political history, for Marxism cannot meet any of the real needs of mankind. Marxism is a materialistic ideology and materialism cannot bring humanity out of the crisis caused by a lack of belief in spirituality the prime affliction of the human society in the East and the west alike.
Mr. Gorbachev,
You may have not in theory turned your back on certain aspects of Marxism - and may continue to profess your heartfelt loyalty to it in interviews - but you know that, in practice, the reality is not so.
The leader of China struck the first blow to communism and you have struck the second and, apparently, final blow. Today we have no such thing as communism in the world. I earnestly call on you, however, not to get trapped, while tearing down the walls of Marxist illusions, in the prison of the West and the Great Satan. I hope you will attain the honor of wiping the filth of 70 yea of communist aberration from the face of history and of your country. Today those allies of yours that are genuinely concerned about their homelands and people are no longer willing to sacrifice their resources to keep alive the myth of the success of communism, an ideololy whose din of collapse has already reached the ears of their children.
Mr. Gorbachev,
When after 70 years the call, “Allah is Great.” and the testimony to the prophecy of Mohammad (PBUH), were heard from the minarets of the mosques in some of your Republics, all the followers of the pure Mohammadian Islam were moved in tears.
Therefore, I have found it necessary to remind you to reflect once again on the materialistic and theistic worldviews. Materialists consider sense to be the sole criterion of knowledge and are of the opinion that whatever cannot be known through the senses falls outside the realm of knowledge. They identify existence with matter and consider as nonexistent anything that has no material body. Inevitably, they regard the world of the unseen—God Almighty, Divine Revelation, Prophethood, and the Resurrection—as mere fiction. On the other hand, theists consider both sense and reason to be the criteria of knowledge, and maintain that whatever can be known through reason lies within the realm of knowledge, although it is not perceptible. To theists, therefore, existence is inclusive of both the unseen and the manifest. For a thing to exist it is not necessary to have a material body. In the same way that a material thing depends on an incorporeal thing, sensory perception is dependent on rational perception.
The Holy Quran reprobates the fundamentals of materialistic thought and, addressing those who say: “We shall never believe in thee until we see God manifestly,” proclaims: “Vision comprehends Him not, and He comprehends all vision; and He is the knower of subtleties, the Aware.” I should not like to present here Quranic arguments concerning Divine Revelation, Prophethood and the Resurrection which from your point of view are debatable. In fact, I do not wish to entangle you in the twists and turns of philosophical arguments, particularly those of Islamic philosophy. I will content myself by presenting one or two simple, intuitive examples of which even politicians can avail themselves.

It is self-evident that matter, whatever its nature, has no awareness of self. Consider a stone statue: each side is ignorant of the other side, whereas human beings and animals, we clearly observe, are aware of their surroundings. They know where they are and are aware of what goes on around them. There must be, then, an element in men and animals that transcends matter and is separate from it, living beyond the life of matter. Intrinsically, man seeks to attain absolute perfection. He strives, as you well know, for absolute power over the world; he is not attached to any power that is defective. If he has the entire world at his command, he naturally feels inclined to have command of another world once he is informed of its existence. No matter how learned a person may be if he learns of some other branch of knowledge, he naturally feels inclined to attain mastery of that branch of knowledge as well. Therefore, there must be some Absolute Power and Absolute Knowledge to which man is attached. It is God we all seek although we may not be aware of it. Man strives to attain Absolute Truth, so that he may be annihilated in God. Basically, the desire for eternal life that is inherent in every individual is proof of the existence of an Eternal World to which destruction cannot find its way.

Should Your Excellency desire further information on these matters, you may command those scholars of yours who are well-versed in this field to study, in addition to the works of Western philosophers, the writings of Peripatetic philosophers, al-Farabi and Avicenna, peace be upon them. It will then become clear that the law of causation on which all knowledge depends is a rational, not sensible law. Likewise, perception of general laws and concepts on which all reasoning rests is reached not by means of sensory experience but through rational argument. Your scholars may further refer to the Eshraqi theosophy of Sohrevardi, and explain to you that the flesh, as well as any other material thing, is in need of Pure Light which has no material entity, that man’s witnessing of his own truth does not take place by means of any sense organ. You may also have the scholars familiarize themselves with Transcendental philosophy of Molla Sadra (may Allah be pleased with him and resurrect him with the prophets and the pious), so that it may become clear that the nature of knowledge is different from the nature of matter and that intellect, far removed from matter, cannot be restricted by the laws governing matter.

I won’t tire you further by mentioning the works of mystics, in particular Mohieddin bin al-Arabi. If you wish to make yourself acquainted with the doctrines of this celebrated mystic, send a number of your brilliant scholars, who are well-versed in this field, to Qom so that, by reliance on God, they may, after a couple of years, glimpse the depth of the delicate stages of gnosis, which will be impossible for them to acquire without making such a journey.

Mr. Gorbachev,

After mentioning these problems and preliminary points, let me call on you to study Islam earnestly, not because Islam and the Muslims may need you but because Islam has exalted universal values which can bring comfort and salvation to all nations and remove the basic problems of mankind. A true understanding of Islam may forever release you from the problem of Afghanistan and other similar involvements. We treat Muslims of the world as Muslims of our own country and will ever share in their destiny.

By granting certain liberties to some of your Republics in matters pertaining to religious practices, you have shown that you no longer consider religion as the “opium of the people.” Indeed, how can Islam be the opium of the people—the religion that has made Iranians as firm as a mountain against superpowers? Is the religion that seeks the administration of justice in the world and man’s freedom from material and spiritual shackles, the opium of the people? Only that religion is the opium of the people that causes the material and spiritual resources of Islamic and non-Islamic countries to pass into the clutches of super- and lesser powers and that preaches that religion is separate from politics. This, however, cannot be called a true religion; it is what our people call “an American religion.”

In conclusion, I declare outright that the Islamic Republic of Iran as the greatest and most powerful base of the Islamic world can easily fill the vacuum of religious faith in your society. In any case, our country, as in the past, honors good neighborhood and bilateral relations.

May peace be upon those who follow the guidance.

Ruhollah al-Mousawi al-Khomeini
January, 1 ,1989
A summary of Gorbachev’s answer after reading Imam’s letter was is as follows:
“I'm thankful of Ayatollah Khomeini’s letter, I'll send an answer to this letter as soon as possible, we’ll announce to Soviet’s clergymen, we are on the way of approbating religion freedom in the Soviets, I have claimed before that despite having different ideologies we can have peaceful relationship."
"Imam Khomeini invited us to Islam; do we have to invite him to our school of thought? Gorbachev smiled and went on,” this is a joke. This invitation is interference in the internal issue of a country. Cause every country is free for selecting its school of thought.”
Iran delegation studied the response of Gorbachev to the letter and realized that the reaction was political as Gorbachev considered the letter as interference to the national issues of the country. The delegation did not discuss on the matter. Head of the delegation, Ayatollah Amoli said,” Thanks for listening to the letter and we appreciate your readiness for answering the letter and relaying it to Soviet clergymen.”
A few months later, the Soviet Empire collapsed. On 25 December 1991, the USSR was dissolved into 15 post-Soviet states. (Updated: Jan, 4, 2013)

Expediency Discernment Council Created

Feb, 6, 1988 AD

A file photo from Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani in Savak prison. Rafsanjani became a prominent revolutionary figure after the Islamic Revolution of 1979 and he survived in the high ranks of IRI.A new entity in Iranian political system was formed after revisions to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran on Feb, 6, 1988: The Expediency Discernment Council of the System shortly named as Majma is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader. Majma was originally set up by Imam Khomeini to resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and the Guardian Council.
In general, responsibilities of the Majma are listed as:

1. -Decision making about master planning, and defining long term local and international policies of the IRI.
2. -Programming and Codification of long-term 20 years blueprints of the regime: Headed by Ayatollah / Hojjatoleslam Hashemi Rafsanjani since its foundation, Majma has been in charge of drafting and supervising a 20 years Vision Plan known as the 1404 document, which is divided into four terms, five years each. The Vision Plan involves a perspective of Iranian development in cultural, scientific, economic, political and social aspects.
3. -Supervision over three supreme powers as the legislature, executive, and judicial branches.
Majma has 35 elite selective members in addition to 3 heads of supreme powers, and 6 members of the Guardian Council that make its assemblies reach 44 people. Occasionally, ministers or authorities in charge of the issue being discussed are present. (Updated: Mar, 5, 2010)

Saudi-Iran Tensions Rise

Apr, 29, 1988 AD

Mohammad Khatami attends the Hajj pilgrimage in Mecca, 2009The Saudi king threatened Iran with using its newly acquired Chinese missiles. Two days after announcing that Saudi Arabia was breaking diplomatic relations with Iran, King Fahd charged Iran in an interview with repeated acts of aggression against Saudi Arabia. Iranian diplomats were asked to leave the kingdom within a week.
During previous summer's pilgrimage to Mecca, 400 people were killed in riots involving Iranian pilgrims . Iranians repeatedly used Hajj pilgrim as an opportunity to run state's political agenda including inciting Muslims to riot against oppressors and chanting death to America. A subsequent attack on the Saudi Embassy in Tehran added to the tensions. Saudis, together with some Arab nations joined western countries in an orchestrated campaign to support Iraq financially and militarily against Iran. Iran had also been called a threat for safe navigation in the Persian Gulf, the latter was used as an excuse for American military presence in the region.
The announcement came as an escalation of a quiet confrontation between the revolutionary Iranian regime and the conservative rulers of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates. Oil producing Arab countries also provided the bulk of financial and logistical support for Iraq in its war with Iran.
Iranians asserted that the Hajj pilgrims not only had the right, but also the obligation to demonstrate against oppressors. The Saudis thus limited the number of Iranian pilgrims and set different obstacles including preventing the arrival of Iranian pilgrims. Fearing from a Shiite uprising or a similar threat to the establishment, the western backed Saudi Arabia repeatedly threatened to use force against political demonstrations in Mecca by Iranians or their supporters.
Tensions between Iran and Saudi Arabia continued in OPEC meeting in May, 1988 when Saudi Arabia rejected a plan to cut oil production and raise prices. Iran's parliament speaker Rafsanjani, denounced Saudi policy as flagrant treachery serving the interests of the US which aimed to damage Iran. By creating conflicts between Iran as a paper tiger and neighboring countries, imposing trade embargo and economic sanctions, the US managed to contain Iran's revolutionary ideas while creating a huge market for weapons in the region. Meanwhile, the Islamic Republic of Iran turned into a despotic theocracy gradually turning away from basics of both republic and Islam by creating figures such as Velayat and institutions such as the Guardian Council with powers above law and public will. (Updated: May, 22, 2009)

IR655: U.S. Shoots Down Iranian Civilian Airplane

Jul, 3, 1988 AD

Iranair IR655 VincentIran Air Flight 655 "IR655" was a commercial flight, that flew on a Tehran-Bandar Abbas-Dubai route. On this day, the flight was shot down by USS Vincennes on the Bandar Abbas-Dubai leg, which resulted in 290 civilian fatalities from six nations including 66 children. 38 non-Iranians were aboard also. Iran calls US action : A barbaric massacre.
At the time of the incident, Vincennes U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser was within Iranian territorial waters. Identifying Airbus A300B2 as Air Force F-14A Tomcat, Vincennes fired a volley of two SM-2ER antiaircraft missiles. The first missile broke the aircraft in two and damaged the tailplane and right wing. However, throughout its final flight IR655 was in radio contact with various air traffic control services using standard civil aviation frequencies, and had spoken in English to Bandar Abbas Approach Control seconds before Vincennes launched its missiles.
On November 6, 2003 the International Court of Justice concluded that the U.S. Navy's actions in the Persian Gulf at the time had been unlawful but U.S. administration never gave a full report or apologized officially for the incident that took place when Iran was in the middle of an 8 year war with Iraq, ruled by Saddam Hussein, a dictator who was supported by most Arab countries and their western allies. Commander & the crew in charge of the battleship were decorated with combat-action ribbons one day prior to U.S. Independence day.
Compared to the downing of Korean Air Flight 007 by the Soviet Air Force in 1983 in which Soviets' airspace had been violated, Time and Newsweek magazines' headline were "Shooting To Kill" and "Murder In the Air", little is available in corporate media on IR655.
Vice President George H. W. Bush (later President of United States of America) declared a month later,
"I will never apologize for the United States of America, ever. I don't care what the facts are.", Newsweek, August 15, 1988
In 1996, the United States agreed with Iran to pay up to $300,000 to families of each of the Iranian passengers. The US State department said that in a settlement totaling $131.8 million, the two deeply hostile countries also resolved banking disputes stemming from the American hostage crisis in Tehran, which ended in 1981. (Updated: Dec, 6, 2007)

End Of 8 Year Iran-Iraq War

Jul, 18, 1988 AD

Iranian Militia Faav LiberationIran decided to call off the war with Iraq because there was growing opposition to it among Iranians. Khomeini described his decision to end the war as bitter as poison. Iran finally was forced to accept the UN resolution #598 and made peace with Iraq having regained its territories two weeks after a civilian airplane was shot down by the US navy in the Persian Gulf. After the shock invasion of Iraq in 1980, it took nearly two years for Iranians to get back most of their lost territories.
But this apparently scared many industrialized countries including France, US and Britain as Iran's victory in the war would mean expansion of the Islamic revolution in the region. Therefore unlimited supply of arms, money and intelligence poured into Iraq to stop the patriotic Iranian armed forces. Still, despite Iraq's long range missiles and Saddam's use of chemical weapons, Iranians could capture some key locations in Iraq that made world powers intervene somehow directly in the war unknowing that this intervention would cause international discredit for named countries in long term. Only 20 years later US gets stuck in Iraq with a demoralized army and a bankrupt economy and a toll of 1,000,000 Iraqi civilians killed as a result of occupation.
Thus ended a ferocious and futile war. (Updated: Feb, 5, 2008)

The Mersad Operation

Jul, 28, 1988 AD

Martyr Reza Naderi one of several civilian volunteers of Basij that fell martyr during the Iran Iraq War. The Mersad Operation was conducted by MKO terrorist group encamped in Iraq, after Iran accepted the ceasefire in 1988.After Iran accepted the UN resolution #598 and declared a ceasefire with Iraq, Saddam Hussein used the terrorist MKO group encamped in Iraq to gain as much of Iranian territory as possible.
The MKO was calculating on civil unrest against the regime and public support for their cause. An army of about 15,000 Aniranian forces equipped with weapons and logistics supplied by Iraq and other enemies of Iran started their invasion of Iran from west. This proved again that MKO and their European allies did not have a clue about Iranian psychology as Iranians quickly entered the battle position and started the Mersad Operation on July, 28, 1988 with the code:Ya Ali.
Happy with their initial success, the Aniranian army moved towards Kermanshah with dreams of capturing Tehran. They were unaware that this was a tactical move to get them all inside a trap. 34 km west of Bakhtaran, a rain of fire descended upon the enemy destroying most of their armored vehicles including 120 tanks. In this operation 4800 of enemy mercenaries were killed while others fled towards Iraq.
The MKO leader Masood Rajavi had entered Iraq on June, 7, 1986 and was greeted by top level Iraqi officials. One week later, he met with Saddam Hussein. After this meeting, MKO transformed from a guerilla group into an army on June, 20, 1986, then money poured in from the Zionist regime and their network of state sponsored terrorism in Europe.
The following winter, MKO’s Ashraf Camp was based 80 km from Baghdad, 150 km from the Iranian border. From this camp, several attacks were conducted against the Iranian troops. MKO also helped Saddam Hussein in torturing Iranian POWs, spying and gathering intelligence.
Iran accepted the UNSC resolution on July, 18, 1988 while Iraq hesitated until August, 18th. Meanwhile, Rajavi persuaded Saddam for a final attack and started their unsuccessful operation on July, 25. (Updated: Jul, 29, 2010)

Executions Of 1988

Jul, 28, 1988 AD

Iran Iraq War Injured SoldiersMKO was a leftist Islamic group that staged armed uprising against the Shah's regime. However, they fell at odds with the central government after 1979 and staged several terror attacks including bombing the parliament after which the group went underground. MKO leaders fled to Europe and then opened a base in Iraq. This last move caused them to lose popularity among Iranians especially at a time when the country was engaged in a bloody war with the Baath regime in Baghdad.
On July, 28, 1988, upon a decree from Imam Khomeini, prisoners who acted as the Fifth Column of the enemy and had relations with terror groups were sent to death squads. A commission consisting of three persons briefly decided on the prisoner's life after asking several questions trying to understand if they were sorry for their acts. The proceedings were brief and in the summer of 1988 about 4,000 prisoners mostly members of the banned MKO were executed.
These executions took place following the Mersad Operation on July, 28, 1988 . During the last days of the Iran–Iraq War, Saddam was trying to occupy more Iranian territories by using MKO militants and their Fifth Column intelligence. Iran’s response was very clear, and effective.
MKO is currently recognized as a terrorist group worldwide.
On Jan, 26, 2009, the Council of the European Union removed the MKO from the EU list of terrorist organizations, a political move to pressure Iran in defiance of the group’s dark history.
There are disputes related to these executions whether proceedings were fair or not. Just a look at the Iranian history in the year 1988 will show that the Islamic Republic was not left with many options. (Updated: Jul, 29, 2010)

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