The Iranian History 1982 AD

 


Communist Guerilla Attacks Amol

Jan, 26, 1982 AD

Statues in Hezar Sangar (1000 Strongholds) Square of Amol in memory of public resistence against a communist guerila that wanted to take over the city in 1982 while Iran was in the middle of a war with Iraq.A guerilla group called Communists Union of Iran staged armed uprising against the Iranian regime. Around 200 of the group members went into hiding in the forests in September, 1981. They staged sporadic attacks on small civilian targets stealing food and necessities until Nov, 9 when they closed the Haraz Road 15 km to Amol in Mazandaran Province. They confiscated several vehicles and took 7 drivers hostage.
Although Iran was in the middle of a war with Iraq, existence of such a dangerous guerilla group could no longer be ignored. On Nov, 13, Iranian armed forces dispersed the group which had to retreat further into depths of the forest. Some casualties were reported on both sides. As a result of this serious encounter, the group lost nearly half of its members. Two days later, another communist group attacked a military post 30 km from Amol. On Dec, 21, 1981, the guerillas attacked a newly established military post, but were forced to retreat. On Jan, 3, 1982, during clashes with Revolutionary Guards, one of the guerilla leaders was killed.
The group leader must have been under serious pressure when they decided to descend to Amol on Jan, 26, 1982. The first target was the Basij building which was hit by RPG. Then they started building barricades and making announcements asking people to join them. Their expectation to stage a public uprising did not find much support and people of Amol quickly grouped against them. People backed the military and took arms against the communist guerillas killing 11 in front of the Basij building. But the civilian death toll was also high at 40 people. By the next day, the city of Amol was calm again and the guerillas were either killed, arrested or fled away. Because of the bravery of the citizens, Amol is now known as the city of 1000 barricades. (Updated: Feb, 15, 2010)





Iranian Response To Al-Qadesiya

Mar, 28, 1982 AD

The Arc of Triumph also called the Swords of Qadisiyah opened to the public on August 8, 1989, it's is an allusion to the historical Battle of Qadesiya holds 5,000 helmets of Iranian soldiers killed during the Iran-Iraq War.The Iraqi Army staged a surprise attack on Iran on September, 22, 1980. In order to destroy the Iranian air force on the ground, Iraq launched numerous sorties against Iranian air fields. There was a chaos in Iranian leadership and while leftists and rightists were engaged in a power struggle, the Iraq captured the Iranian city of Khorramshahr and Saddam issued 25 Dinar banknotes with drawings from the historical Battle of Al-Qadesiya in which Arabs defeated the Sassanid army.
Iranians pulled themselves together fast. While civil resistance struck the invading army forcing it to stop at the Karoon River, the Iranian Navy paralyzed the enemy at sea in November, 1980 asserting full dominance of the Persian Gulf. That was when Iraq started crying for peace but petro-dollars from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia began pouring into Saddam's accounts. Western powers and USSR supported the Iraqi dictator logistically and provided him with arms and intelligence. They were afraid that the Iranian Revolution would spread worldwide.
Despite the fact that Iran was under US embargo and the Fifth Column staged widespread bombings and assassinations throughout the country, most Iranians became united against the common enemy.
Operation Fatholmobeen started one day after Norooz of 1982, precisely 18 months after the invasion. Iranians launched an armored thrust by constant human-wave attacks. Three Iraqi divisions were encircled in the operation and destroyed within a week. After heavy Iraqi losses, Saddam ordered a retreat on the 28th of September and Iranians commenced several operations to retake lost territory. This victory was followed by other operations such as Qods that leaded to liberation of Khorramshahr on May, 25, 1982.
The Iraqis eventually stabilized their armed forces after their retreat from Iran. Iranians were not able to succeed in assaults against Iraq army due to Iraqi chemical weapon attacks. The Iranian government was also weak in international politics. Moreover, some fractions in Iran were reluctant to negotiate peace because they had benefits at war. Iraq was strongly supported by both the United States and the Soviet Union who saw Saddam's regime as a much better option than the revolutionary Iranians chanting anti-imperialist slogans that annoyed USSR as well.
The eight year Iran–Iraq War left many bitter memories such as a chemical bomb attack on Sardasht in 1987, and US Navy attack on a civilian Iranian airplane in 1988.
The imposed war and western atrocities opened way for extremist fractions in Iran that somehow diverted Iranians from their revolutionary goals: Independence, Liberty and Islamic Republic.
The Iran–Iraq War is over, but US military presence in neighboring countries proves that nations in the region have a much longer way to go in terms of social awareness. (Updated: Sep, 24, 2011)





Khorramshahr Liberated

May, 24, 1982 AD

A Bomb turns School in Khorramshahr into Rubbles. The Iraqi regime backed by western powers did not hesitate to target all civilian facilities breaking all international conventions.On Sep, 22, 1980 Iraq attacked Iran at a time when Iran was least prepared for a war. The Iraqi army supported by western and Arab countries advanced into Iran capturing Khorramshahr and Susangerd and stopped near Ahvaz. Abadan became under siege and was about to collapse when it was suddenly freed through courageous and daring operations by Iranians.
After that, Iran inflicted one defeat after another on the Iraqi army and Khorramshahr was freed after two years, on May, 24, 1982. But the devastating war lasted for 8 years with more than 1,000,000 casualties on each side according to some sources.
About 19,000 Iraqi soldiers were taken prisoner after liberation of Khorramshahr which was occupied for 578 days. During the Beytolmoghaddas Operation 6,000 Iranian soldiers were killed and 24,000 were injured. (Updated: Oct, 23, 2008)





Islamic Azad University Founded

Aug, 1, 1982 AD

Originally founded as Islamic Azad University of Tehran on Aug, 1, 1982, it currently has an enrollment of 1.5 million students, making it the world's second largest. The largest academic library in Iran, located in Najafabad campus.Originally founded as Islamic Azad University of Tehran on Aug, 1, 1982, this private institution of Higher Education currently has an enrollment of 1.5 million students, making it the world's second largest.
Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch is the first and the largest branch of Islamic Azad University among domestic and foreign branches which was established in Tehran in May 1982. It started its activities with 6 courses in Bachelor's degree, one course in Associates degree admitting 200 students.
Islamic Azad University's activities quickly expanded throughout the country, so that today thousands of students are enrolling every year. Not relying on government funding, it receives charitable donations and charges tuition fees.
Azad University has over 400 branches across the country and also in other countries. It has branches and universities in U.A.E., United Kingdom, Tanzania, Lebanon and Armenia. Over the years, the university has accumulated assets estimated to be worth between $20 and $25 billion.
Azad University diplomas are recognized by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. Masters and doctorate programs have been offered in many different branches of Islamic Azad University.
Controversy:
In 2011, a variety of issues surrounding the Islamic Azad University including the life-term presidency of Abdollah Jasbi and high tuition fees filled the state media. Observers saw this as an internal struggle between centers of power. Amid the controversy, the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei announced that the endowment of the university's assets was against the law.
The disputes surrounding the Islamic Azad University emerged after the Board of Trustees headed by Ayatollah Rafsanjani announced the previous year that it had endowed all movable and immovable properties of the university.
In a meeting of the Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution on Tuesday Jan, 17, 2012 Farhad Daneshjoo was appointed as the new president of the Islamic Azad University, thus ending Abdollah Jasbi’s 29-year presidency. (Updated: Sep, 6, 2012)





Iraqi Missile Attack On Dezful

Dec, 19, 1982 AD

On March 16, 1988, after two days of conventional artillery attacks, Iraqi planes dropped gas canisters on Halapcha. Chemical weapons supplied by Germany and Netherlands killed at least 5000 immediately and injured numerous civilians in Halabja.(Wikipedia) - Iraq was the first to use ballistic missiles during the Iran–Iraq War, firing limited numbers of Frog-7 rockets at the towns of Dezful and Ahvaz. On 27 October 1982, Iraq launched its first Scud-Bs at Dezful killing 21 civilians and wounding 100. Scud strikes continued during the following years, intensifying sharply in 1985, with more than 100 missiles falling inside Iran.
On Dec, 19, 1982 the Iraqi army under Saddam Hussein attacked the city of Dezful from air, and used surface-to-surface Scud missiles; three of the missiles hit the residential area of the city. The death toll was high. 62 civilians were martyred, and 287 injured. 120 houses, 380 shops and a mosque was destroyed.
Once again on Feb. 11, 1984 Iraq attacked civilian targets in Dezful, triggering a new phase of the war. Iran responded on Feb. 12 by shelling seven Iraqi cities. After repeated incidents, Iran accepted an Iraqi ceasefire offer on Feb. 18. Both agreed to allow a U.N. mission to assess damage in civilian areas.
The volatile ceasefire did not last long and in late February offensives started again.
In 1988, the fighting along the border had reached a stalemate. In a conflict known as the war of the cities, an intensive use of Scud missiles lasted from 29 February to 20 April. The first rounds were fired by Iraq, when seven missiles landed in Tehran on February 29. In all, Iraq fired 189 missiles, of which 135 landed in Tehran, 23 in Qom, 22 in Isfahan, four in Tabriz, three in Shiraz and two in Karaj. During this episode, Iraq's missiles killed 2,000 Iranians, injured 6,000, and caused a quarter of Tehran's population of ten million to flee the city. The Iranian response included launching 75 to 77 Hwasong-5s, a North Korean Scud variant, at targets in Iraq, mostly in Baghdad. This silenced the Iraq missile rampage.
Although Iran insisted that the international community, specifically the UN should recognize Iraq as the invading country which started the war. For political reasons and commercial benefits, the world powers refrained from endorsing any resolution until 1991, three years after the end of the Iran-Iraq War and only after Iraq occupied Kuwait.
The war between Iran and Iraq which had continued for eight years had clearly started through breach of international law by Iraq, in a UN report on December 9, 1991 based on Resolution 598 which was adopted by the Security Council on July 20, 1987. UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar mentioned in his report that the attack against Iran on September 22, 1980 as the most prominent event which showed a breach of international law as specified in Paragraph 5 of his report. He added that aggression against Iran could not be justified on the basis of any principle or rule of international law or ethics.
During the Iran-Iraq War Western countries such as US, UK, France, and Persian Gulf Sheikhdoms financed Iraq and provided the Baath regime with weapons, logistics, intelligence and training. The western media generally reported the Iraqi side of the story during the war, and some countries such as Germany and Netherlands went as far as providing the crazy Iraqi leader with Chemical Weapons, and Saddam did not hesitate to use it against Iranian civilians in Sardasht on June, 28, 1987 , and even on his own people in Halapcha on March, 16, 1988.
Dutch arms dealer Frans van Anraat from his firm based in Bissone, Switzerland sold raw materials for the production of chemical weapons to Iraq during the reign of Saddam Hussein.
On December 23, 2005, Anraat was sentenced to fifteen years in prison for complicity in war crimes, but the court decided the charges of complicity in genocide could not be substantiated. Both the public prosecutor as well as Van Anraat appealed the verdict. In May 2007, the appeal court sentenced Van Anraat to seventeen years in prison, this time for complicity in multiple war crimes which explains the two extra years, but not for complicity in genocide. Shortly after the arrest of Van Anraat, several Dutch newspapers reported that Van Anraat had been an informant of the Dutch Secret Service, the AIVD. According to the Dutch press, Van Anraat received protection from the AIVD and was placed in a safehouse of the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations in Amsterdam. (Updated: Dec, 11, 2012)





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