The Iranian History 1971 AD


The Ramsar Convention On Wetlands

Feb, 2, 1971 AD

Ramsar Hotel 1951Iran hosted representatives from 18 industrial countries who gathered in Ramsar to prepare the first comprehensive treaty regarding wetlands. The convention on wetlands, signed in Ramsar, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. Currently, there are 158 parties to the convention, with over 1758 wetland sites, totaling 161 million hectares, designated for inclusion in the Ramsar list of wetlands of international importance. The original idea to form such a conventional came up in 1962 and it took 8 years to actualize it mainly due to efforts by Mr. Eskandar Firooz, the head of environment organization of Iran. Representatives from international organizations such as UNESCO, FAO, WWF, IUCN, etc were also present to exchange thoughts and ideas. 22 wetlands from Iran are registered in the list, 7 of which are endangered. Some experts believe that %80 of wetlands in Iran should be considered endangered. (Updated: Aug, 16, 2008)

Anti-Shah Rebels Clash In Siahkal

Feb, 8, 1971 AD

Gilan Siahkal Pashouran Lake and God made Gilan the heaven on earth… Gilan province, with a myriad of natural, historical, and touristic attractions shines like a star in the skies of Iran as the main tourist destination during holidays.Clashes in Siahkal marked the first of several encounters between the Pahlavi regime and armed rebels. The rebels were groups of students with extremist Marxist views who merged into the Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas aka CFK guerilla army which used dense jungles of Gilan as their base.
On Feb, 8, 1971, in the evening hours, 13 guerillas armed with machine guns and grenades attacked the Gendarmerie post in Siahkal in order to free their comrade who was arrested earlier. The attack was unsuccessful as the guerillas were dispersed and escaped towards the depths of the jungle. Shocked with the news, a team of Special Forces were dispatched from Tehran who swiftly located the rebel camps near Siahkal and killed 30 guerillas. They arrested eleven of CFK members, one of which died under torture and the rest were briefly executed.
The despot regime which did not tolerate any opposing voices started a crack down on opposition and arrested leftist university students who did not even have any ties to CFK. Although it seemed that the leftist guerilla movements who were called "terrorists" by the government seemed to have been eliminated, the brief disturbance created a sample for other groups who sought to fight against Mohammad Reza Shah.
During police operations 17 CFK members were arrested, 13 of which were executed on March, 17, 1971; those were Ali Akbar Safayi Farahani, Ghafour Hassanpour, Hadi Bandehkhoda, Ahmad Farhoodi, Houshang Nayyeri, Eskandar Rahimi, Jalil Enferadi, Abbas Danesh, Mohammad Hadi Fazeli, Esmail Moini, Shoaoddin Moshidi, Nasser Seif Dalil Safayi, Mohammad Ali Mohaddes Ghandchi
After the 1979 revolution, CFK fell into disagreements within its own ranks and was divided into two streams. The mainstream which became close to the Toodeh Party could survive for a while but slowly vanished in time. (Updated: Apr, 1, 2010)

Iran Leads Oil Price Rise

Feb, 25, 1971 AD

A movie Theatre (Golden City Cinema) in Tehran in 1971 featuring Gregory Peck and Sophia Loren in ArabesqueJamshid Amouzegar, finance minister of Mohammad Reza Shah received a a first class Taj medal as a reward for leading the six oil-producing nations of the Persian Gulf: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi and Qatar in wresting an increase in payments from 23 international oil companies, 20 of them American. Shah felt pleased as well.
The accord ended a month of negotiations in Tehran. Shah had established himself as leader of the world's oil-producing nations and changed the balance of power between oil-producing and consuming countries. Under the stiff provisions of a new, five-year pact, the posted price of Persian Gulf oil-on which royalties and taxes were calculated would rise by 35¢ per bbl. The agreement was expected to bring the gulf countries an extra $10 billion in oil income over the following five years.
In the Tehran agreement, the oil companies gained a pledge from Persian Gulf states not to raise prices again for five years. (Updated: Sep, 15, 2011)

17 Pahlavi Dissidents executed

Mar, 17, 1971 AD

Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi is visiting the notorious Anti-Terror Joint Committee prison in Tehran where prisoners of conscience were tortured to death under supervision of the secret police named SAVAK.The Siahkal Uprising was a guerrilla operation against Pahlavi regime organized by Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas that happened near Siahkal town in Gilan on February 8, 1971, widely viewed as the turning point in the leftist armed struggle against the Iranian dictator Mohammad Reza Shah of Pahlavi Dynasty.
During police operations that followed the Siahkal incident, 17 CFK members were arrested, 13 of which were executed on March, 17, 1971; those were Ali Akbar Safayi Farahani, Ghafour Hassanpour, Hadi Bandehkhoda, Ahmad Farhoodi, Houshang Nayyeri, Eskandar Rahimi, Jalil Enferadi, Abbas Danesh, Mohammad Hadi Fazeli, Esmail Moini, Shoaoddin Moshidi, Nasser Seif Dalil Safayi, and Mohammad Ali Mohaddes Ghandchi.
In the period from 1971 to 1979, Fedaian came under an intense attack by the Shah's regime, and nearly 300 Fedaian members were killed by the government. In this period the majority of the organization's members were captured or murdered including its leader Hamid Ashraf whose death was a major loss to the organization.
Following the Iranian Revolution, the CFK public offices were established in most Iranian cities. In the first election after the revolution, Fedaian received 10% of the votes.
On May Day 1981, thousands of OIPFG (Majority) supporters gathered in Tehran. At the rally, the organization announced that the group would cease to conduct guerrilla warfare and was renamed Organization of Iranian People's Fedaian (Majority). (Updated: Mar, 23, 2013)

General Farsio Assassinated

Apr, 7, 1971 AD

Anti-Terror Joint Committee Prison was a secret detention centre in Tehran under the Pahlavi Regime where SAVAK widely practiced torture against opponents of Mohammad-Reza Shah. It became Towhid Prison after the revolution, now is called the Ebrat Museum.Following the Siahkal incident 13 members of the Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas were executed by firing squad. The Siahkal Uprising had caught the Pahlavi Regime by surprise and posters were distributed with a bounty of 100,000 Tomans (~15,000$) for each of 9 OIPFG members, this indeed made the group famous around Iran where the public usually feared uttering any word of discontent because of a suffocating fear which was spread by Shah's notorious SAVAK.
Five group members of OIPFG whose identities had not yet been revealed assassinated General Zia Farsio on April, 7, 1971 in his Gholhak Police Headquarters. Farsio was the Attorney General of the Iranian military in Tehran. By this assassination the group took its revenge and gave the signal that it was still active. This gave the regime another shock so that media outlets did not report the incident until the following day.
On May, 15, 1971 OIPFG staged a rubbery on a bank on the Eisenhower Street in Tehran. A couple of days later, Ashraf Dehghani and Behrouz Dehghani were arrested. Many more prominent members of the group were either arrested or killed in the same year. However, the group had become more prestigious and new recruits became active in underground cells in Tehran, Tabriz, Gorgan, Rasht and Anzali.
OIPFG continued its armed struggle and robbed 5 banks, killed 2 Savak officers, plotted bombs in embassies of US, UK, and Oman, alongside bombings in main offices of Post & Telegraph and Iran Air. Terror plots against police headquarters in Tehran, Mashhad, Tabriz, Gorgan, and Abadan were among their major list of achievements during a couple of years that followed.
On April, 18, 1975 newspapers reported that nine of OIPFG members were killed while attempting to escape from the prison. Years later, after the Iranian Revolution of 1979, a professional Savak torturer named Bahman Naderipour in his confessions gave accounts of the mass murder which took place on the heights near the Evin Prison. (Updated: Mar, 19, 2013)

Bahrain Declares Independence

Aug, 14, 1971 AD

Tents erected in the back of Persepolis ruins during 2500 Years Celebrations in 1971Bahrain, the 14th province of Iran declares it's independence from mainland. Bahrain had been a part of Iran since the Achaemenid empire. After the fall of the Sassanid dynasty in the 7th century, Arab migration to the region accelerated. During the Deylamian dynasty, Bahrain was under the Fars governor's supervision which kept their Iranian characteristics until the Portuguese occupied the region. The Safavids succeeded in expeling the Portuguese and created naval units to protect the region against foreigners. The British colonists used the opportunity associated with the Qajar dynasty's weaknesses to divide the country, thus installed some migrants as Caliphate in Bahrain. Still Iran always kept good ties with Bahrain although some efforts during Reza Shah and Mosaddegh administration to reclaim Bahrain were futile. Mohammad Reza Shah finally became the person who had the honor of giving Bahrain up; therefore leaving the Shiite and Iranian inhabitants alone in a bad situation similar to that of Iraq during the Baath regime. (Updated: Aug, 16, 2008)

2500 Years Celebrations Ceremony

Oct, 12, 1971 AD

Mohammad Reza Shah's Crown adorned in precious jewelsWith a speech by Mohammad Reza Shah in front of Pasargadae, 2500 Years Celebrations began. Top officials from more than 100 nations attended the luxurious ceremonies that depicted Iran's glorious civilization but backfired as it drew ire between Iranians that saw it as a sign of Shah's personal ambitions.
Shah was determined to stage his show of shows as a sign to the rest of the world that Iran is again a nation equal to all the others. This one raised red flags among those who did not want to see Iran gain an identity and slip out of their hegemony.
Representatives from 69 states including a reigning Emperor, nine Kings, five Queens, 13 Princes, eight Princesses, 16 Presidents, three Premiers, four Vice Presidents, two Governor Generals, two Foreign Ministers, nine Sheikhs and two Sultans poured into Iran for the monumental celebration marking the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire that stretched from present-day India to the Aegean, and from the Danube to the Nile by Cyrus the Great.
The event had many side stories on unprecedented amount of spending and waste on haute couture and luxuries such as bringing food and decorations directly from France. The overall expenses were estimated at some $300,000,000 while ordinary people were living in poverty and thus become a tool for propaganda against him even after he was ousted. Still, changing the Iran's calendar to the imperial date instead of the Arabic Hijri, along other nationalistic trends such as extensive use of Shir-o-Khorshid (Lion and Sun) appearing everywhere had a positive impact on Iranians who had lost their true identity due to centuries of exploitation and humiliation. (Updated: Dec, 9, 2008)

Iran Takes Back Her Islands

Nov, 30, 1971 AD

Satellite photo from the Persian GulfIranian forces seized control of Greater and Lesser Tunb Islands in the Persian Gulf. Since then, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu Musa Islands have been administered under the province of Hormozgan.
Reference to the Greater Tunb as a Persian island is found in the12th century Farsnameh of Balkhi. In the context of Persian Empire; all islands in the north of the Persian Gulf were rightly Persian although some were inhabited by tribes with Arab descent. Starting from the 18th century, European colonists with Britain on top of the list, in an attempt to exploit the region have observed a "divide and rule policy" that has created "regions of dispute" all over the Middle East. Awareness among Iranians stopped them short of doing their infamous slave trade as they did in Africa. At that time British ships were sailing across the world with millions of slave human souls in chain.
The British hegemony deprived Iran from having naval units in the Persian Gulf to the extent that she could not practice her sovereignty over Persian Gulf islands.
After abolition of slave trade in England and awakening in India, the British government lost a great amount of its free labor and resources and thus had no choice but to reduce its naval forces beyond Suez in 1968. Iranians were watching the Old Fox carefully.
On Nov, 30, 1971 at dawn Iranian Navy departed from Bandar Lengeh and waited at a distance from the occupied Persian Gulf Islands while a Hovercraft swiftly disembarked on the Abu Musa Island. With support of Iranian helicopters patrolling the airspace, the island's military post was quickly captured.
The archipelago islands of the Persian Gulf were thus returned to the motherland after 80 years of occupation by invading British forces.
Today Iran is the only country with a strong naval presence in the Persian Gulf while the United States is walking on footsteps of its founding slave-traders seeking illicit sources to fund its expensive overseas operations. As a result, anti-American sentiments are very strong in the region especially among proud Iranians who also happen to be the only Middle East nation that do not accept foreign soldiers on their soil. (Updated: Oct, 1, 2011)

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