Britain abused Iranian prodigious oil fields for many years. That all changed in 1951 when Iranians nationalized the oil industry under Mosaddegh leadership. Mosaddegh was a true nationalist who really believed in democracy, human rights and freedom and he wished all the best for Iranians. Although his secular stance pissed off some zealots, his government enjoyed a popular backing when a UK-CIA backed coup brought a despotic monarchy to power.
Shortly after the Shah's return, Mosaddegh was tried for treason by the Shah's military court. On 19 December 1953, defending himself against the treason charge, he said:
“Yes, my sin — my greater sin and even my greatest sin is that I nationalized Iran's oil industry and discarded the system of political and economic exploitation by the world's greatest empire. This is at the cost to myself, my family; and at the risk of losing my life, my honor and my property. With God's blessing and the will of the people, I fought this savage and dreadful system of international espionage and colonialism.... I am well aware that my fate must serve as an example in the future throughout the Middle East in breaking the chains of slavery and servitude to colonial interests.”
After the brief show trial at a military court he was sentenced to three years in prison on 21 December 1953. After his term, he was kept under house arrest in Ahmadabad and was denied contact with the outside world. He spent the last days of his life in a hospital in Tehran and finally passed away on March, 5, 1967 at the age of 87. His supporters were denied a funeral and he was buried in a room in his house in Ahmadabad against his will.
The secret U.S. overthrow of Mosaddegh served as a rallying point in anti-US protests during the 1979 Iranian Revolution and to this day he is said to be one of the most popular figures in Iranian history. Despite his popularity among people, he is generally ignored by the regime of the Islamic Republic.
After the 1979 revolution the Pahlavi Avenue was renamed after him, however the fear from his name and revival of his ideas still threatens treacherous elements of darkness creeping within highest ranks of Iranian institutions. (Updated: Mar, 6, 2008)
The first Television transmitter was installed in Tehran on Oct, 25, 1958 and the date is known as the day TV broadcasts started. The Iranian TV was a privately owned company broadcasting programs for only four hours per day.
In the summer of 1966, after installation of several transmitters nationwide, the National Iranian Television started as a public broadcast company in October 1966. The Plan and Budget Organization allocated a budget for the project, and the Ministry of Economy allocated land for a temporary structure, and on October 26, 1966, National Iranian Television sent its first broadcast message, a statement by the Shah.
On March, 20, 1967, the National Iranian Television was officially inaugurated with special programs for the Norooz celebrations. Five years later, both the National Television and National Radio companies merged into one single organization called the National Iranian Radio and Television.
In June 1967, the Parliament approved a proposal for the economic and administrative independence of NITV. Prior to 1967 television had covered about 2.1 million people. When NIRT began regular transmissions that year, coverage rose to 4.8 million, and by 1974 had risen to over 15 million, roughly half the total Iranian population. By 1975–76 radio covered almost the entire country, and 70 percent of the population had television reception.
For 22 years the American Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS) broadcast a local radio service (Radio 1555) and a local TV service (Channel 7) to the capital of Iran from their studios in Tehran. However in 1976 it was decided by the Iranian government that AFRTS should close down its radio and TV services, which it did on 25 October 1976, the day before the Shah of Iran’s 57th birthday.
Radio 1555 closed with presenter: Airforce Staff Sergeant Barry Cantor playing as the last record: Roger Whittaker’s Durham Town (The Leaving). This was followed by a closing announcement by Chief Master Sergeant and Station Manager: Bob Woodruff, followed by the American National Anthem.
The following morning, the 26th October 1976, the Shah’s birthday, this additional Iranian government owned radio and television service began under the control of NIRT Director General: Mr. Reza Ghotbi.
After the 1979 Revolution, NIRT changed to Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, or IRIB.
Currently, the IRIB has branches in 45 countries worldwide, including France, Belgium, Malaysia, UK, the United States, and broadcasts in more than 30 languages. IRIB produces 5000 hours of TV shows, 300 movies and 20,000 minutes of animated movies, annually. (Updated: Mar, 5, 2013)
On June, 2, 1967 Mohammad Reza Shah visited West Berlin.
The first days of his visit to West Germany went as planned. Shah was received by the political and economic elite, Germany’s credits to Iran were enlarged and the reports about the Shah in the papers were friendly. Especially the yellow press was full of pictures.
Shah was seen as a royal representative of Iranian high society and a modernizer while many saw him as a dictator. Suppression of opponents drew the attention of human rights activists, students and the European press. Many of them compared the Pahlavi rule to the Nazi regime. In West Berlin, Shah was met with vigorous protests. It was a time when student revolutions were taking place in many parts of the world. During clashes between protesters and the police, a student named Benno Ohnesorg was killed by a German police officer. In the aftermath massive protests all over Germany started.
News of this incident was censored in the Iranian media which extensively covered Shah's visit to the US on August 21st 1967. A US army detachment fired a 21-gun salute for Mohammad Reza Shah of Iran on his arrival in Washington. During a meeting with US President Lyndon Johnson, Shah conveyed messages from Jordan king Hussein who asked for concrete US support for Arab moderates. Shah also complained that the U.S. has yet to deliver the two squadrons of F-4 Phantoms that were promised to Iran.
Another issue was development of water resources in Iran. President Johnson assured Shah that an American team of water experts will join an Iranian team to begin the study and share the technology so that adequate water may be available to meet Iran's needs.
Shah re-iterated Iran's ongoing fight against illiteracy and his plans for improving health conditions.
Representation of Shah in western media was not always the same.
Meanwhile, on the streets of US anti-war protestors were shouting "LBJ! How many kids did you kill today?" without being heard.
During Shah's visit in August, American media did not even mention the June incident in West Germany. (Updated: Oct, 5, 2011)
(Wikipedia) - The Shiraz Arts Festival was inaugurated by Queen Farah Pahlavi on Sep, 11, 1967. The Shiraz-Persepolis Festival of Arts was an arts festival held annually from 1967 to 1977 in Shiraz sponsored by National Iranian Radio & Television. The festival included music, dance and theater, performed in the ruins of Persepolis and other attractions of the Fars Province.
The main focus was on traditional Iranian music, music of East Asia, and classical western music.
The cultural event attracted national and international artists, including Peter Brook, John Cage, Joseph Chaikin, Merce Cunningham, Jerzy Grotowski, Bismillah Khan, Vilayat Khan, Ram Narayan, Yehudi Menuhin, Gordon Mumma, Parisa, Arthur Rubinstein, Valda Setterfield, Ravi Shankar, Uma Sharma, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Shuji Terayama, David Tudor, and Iannis Xenakis.
During the 11th Shiraz Arts Festival in 1977, one of the longest live shows in the history of theatre called the Ka Mountain was performed in Shiraz which lasted for 164 hours and 47 performers acted continuously.
Following the Iranian Revolution, the festival was discontinued but other similar activities nevertheless more appealing to Iranian cultural heritage such as Day of Hafez on 20th of October take place in Shiraz every year. (Updated: Oct, 16, 2012)
On his 47th birthday, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi crowns himself after 26 years of reign. It's not clear what his purpose was. Most likely, he wanted to introduce his son from Queen Farah Pahlavi as the crown prince. The coronation ceremony was an expensive one. World's most famous jewelers from France and Italy had been given orders months before the event which took place at the Salam Hall of the Golestan Palace. The hall was redecorated for this purpose. Shah personally placed his 3,755-jewel crown on his own head. Queen's crown adorned with most precious jewels was made by the world famous Cartier. The event was televised around the world.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was a puppet king brought to power by a CIA backed coup in 1953 and lacked popularity. He married Farah in 1959 in hopes of having a son as the prince. An assassination attempt against Shah in 1965 probably was another motive for this coronation ceremony. Farah gave birth to Crown Prince Reza seven years ago.
Iran withheld nothing in its clamorous celebration of the event, which was to last for seven days and seven nights. Planes bombed Tehran with 17,532 roses:one for every day of Shah's life. Cannons pounded out a 101-gun salute. The Tehran Symphony Orchestra played a new coronation hymn. A million dollars worth of fireworks rocketed through the night sky. (Updated: Oct, 26, 2008)
- National Iranian Radio and Television : راديو تلويزيون ملي ايران
- Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting : صدا و سيماي جمهوري اسلامي ايران
- Plan and Budget Organization : سازمان برنامه و بودجه
- National Iranian Television : تلويزيون ملي ايران
- Tehran Symphony Orchestra : ارکستر سمفونيک تهران
- American National Anthem : سرود ملي ايالات متحده آمريکا
- Karlheinz Stockhausen : کارلهاينتز اشتوکهاوزن
- Shiraz Arts Festival : جشن هنر شيراز
- Ministry of Economy : وزارت اقتصاد
- Iranian Revolution : انقلاب ايران(1979 Revolution,Islamic Revolution)
- Mohammad Reza Shah : محمدرضا شاه(Mohammadreza Shah) شاهنشاه،آريامهر،پهلوي
- Arthur Rubinstein : آرتور روبينشتاين
- Valda Setterfield : والدا سترفيلد
- Islamic Republic : جمهوري اسلامي
- Merce Cunningham : مرسيه کانينگهام
- Jerzy Grotowski : جرژي گروتوفسکي
- Lyndon Johnson : ليندن جانسون(Lyndon B. Johnson,LBJ)
- Iannis Xenakis : يانيس زناکيس
- Shuji Terayama : شيوجي تراياما
- Joseph Chaikin : جوزف چيکين
- Bismillah Khan : استاد بسم اللہ خان صاحب
- Yehudi Menuhin : يهودي منوخين
- United States : ايالات متحده
- Farah Pahlavi : فرح پهلوي
- Fars Province : استان فارس(Persis)
- Reza Pahlavi : رضا پهلوي (دوم)
- Crown Prince : وليعهد شاهزاده ، نايب السلطنه
- West Germany : آلمان غربي
- Bob Woodruff : باب وودراف
- Vilayat Khan : استاد ولايت حسين خان
- Ravi Shankar : راوي شانکار
- Barry Cantor : بري کنتور
- Gordon Mumma : گوردون ماما
- Middle East : خاورميانه
- West Berlin : برلين غربي
- Ka Mountain : کوهستان کا
- Ram Narayan : رام نارايان
- David Tudor : ديويد تودور
- Peter Brook : پيتر بروک
- Prince Reza : پرنس رضا
- Reza Ghotbi : رضا قطبي
- Persepolis : تخت جمشيد پرسپوليس
- Uma Sharma : اوما شارما
- Parliament : پارلمان مجلس ، مجلس شورا
- Washington : واشنگتن
- Mosaddegh : مصدق(Mossaddegh, Mosaddeq) دکتر محمد مصدق،مصدق السلطنه
- John Cage : جان کيج
- Bismillah : بسم الله
- Wikipedia : ويکي پديا
- Ahmadabad : احمدآباد روستاي احمدآباد
- Reza Shah : رضا شاه(Sardar Sepah, Reza Gholdor) رضا خان
- Golestan : گلستان(Gulistan)
- American : آمريكائي ينگه دنيائي
- Malaysia : مالزي
- Iranian : ايراني اهل ايران ، وابستهبه ايران
- Belgium : بلژيک
- Germany : آلمان
- Islamic : اسلامي
- Britain : بريتانيا انگليس
- Pahlavi : پهلوي(Pahlevi)
- Tehran : تهران(Teheran, Tahran) طهران
- Shiraz : شيراز تيرازيس
- Norooz : نوروز(Nowrooz,Noruz,Nevruz,Nawruz)
- Berlin : برلين
- Jordan : اردن(Urdun)
- Parisa : پريسا فاطمه واعظي
- France : فرانسه(République française)
- German : آلماني
- Italy : ايتاليا
- Radio : راديو
- AFRTS : اي اف آر تي اس
- Hafez : حافظ لسان الغيب،شيخ محمد شمس الدين حافظ شيرازي
- LBJ! : ليندون جانسون
- Nazi : نازي
- Asia : آسيا
- Khan : خان
- IRIB : آي آر آي بي( Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting) صدا و سيماي جمهوري اسلامي ايران
- Arab : عرب
- NITV : ان آي تي وي
- Iran : ايران
- NIRT : ان آي آر تي
- Shah : شاه پادشاه
- Fars : فارس
- RIB : آرآي بي
- CIA : سيا(C.I.A.)
- US : ايالات متحده
- UK : انگليس(United Kingdom,The Old Fox)
Latest Additions to Iranian History Chronicle: