The Iranian History 1962 AD

 


Aviation Industry Nationalized

Jan, 20, 1962 AD

An old ad by National Iran Air(Homa) running in an American magazineThe Iranian aviation industry was nationalized under the name Iran Air. The private company Iranian Airways had been founded in April 1944 which shuttled between Tehran and Mashhad. The company gradually added some international flights. In 1954, the second private airline called Persian Airways was founded. The two companies merged under Iran National Air.
In 1975, Iran Air aka Homa started flights between Tehran and New York with one stop at London's Heathrow Airport. With purchase of Boeing 747, Homa started the longest non-stop flight to date between Tehran and New York. On Oct, 8, 1972, Homa submitted the purchase order for two Concorde ultrasonic planes which never arrived in Iran. In 1976, Homa earned the title of the safest airline in the world after the Australian Qantas.
Iran National Air became the Islamic Republic of Iran Air after 1979 but the name Homa and it's ancient symbol for a legendary bird that represents happiness was unchanged. Iran Air last landed in New York on Oct, 7, 1979 after which Iranian flights were banned from landing in any U.S. airport due to tensions between two nations caused by the Hostage Crisis. In a radical move, hardline students stormed U.S. embassy in Tehran taking people hostage for 444 days.
Homa transported 1.8 passengers in 1981. Because of trade sanctions, Homa's fleet has grown old and Iran Air has lost its glory. Currently, there are some other private airlines operating in Iran such as Iran Air Tour, Aseman Air, and Mahan Air. (Updated: Oct, 2, 2008)





Mosaddegh Supporters Arrested

Jan, 30, 1962 AD

The puppet king Mohammad Reza Shah arrives in Tehran after the coupEight years after the CIA/MI6 backed coup d'état that re-installed the puppet dictator , Nationalist supporters of toppled Mosaddegh regained enough strength to state a public demonstration of 200,000 people in Tehran. The military junta responded with iron fist and did not hesitate to take about 200 of ex-officials under arrest in a 10 day period starting from Jan, 21, 1962 until Jan, 30th. The newly founded SAVAK intelligence service which later became a notorious organization was an unprecedented body gaining power over the Iranian political system. Alongside some South American countries, CIA was supporting such organizations which later changed the image of the US worldwide drastically. SAVAK also maintained deep ties with MOSSAD of Israel.
Among arrested people were prominent figures such as Shapour Bakhtiar who became the last appointed prime minister to facilitate transition from the monarchic dictatorship to a totalitarian theocracy.
Dariush Forouhar was another important personality who headed the Ministry of Labor right after 1979 and was assassinated in a cleanup operation by the Islamic Ministry of Information in 1998 in a power struggle eliminating leaders of rival political factions. (Updated: Jan, 29, 2009)





The End Of Cold War Between Iran And USSR

Mar, 27, 1962 AD

A view from streets of Tehran in 1960s packed with American and German carsJust 2 years before, on March, 27, 1960 media wars had begun between USSR and Iran. After Iran's alliance with the west and becoming close friends with the US, the Soviets' propaganda machine took the issue too seriously and even installed huge loudspeakers at the northern borders to deliver radio messages against Iran's regime. Meanwhile Iran's radio was broadcasting news against the Soviet Union. Fortunately, the administration in Tehran was not as cocky as its western allies. Having the experience of great empire diplomacy for thousands of years, Dr. Ali Amini, the Iranian prime minister delivered a speech in which he expressed Iran's willingness to have friendly relations with the USSR and that Iran would not make decisions against it's national benefits; thus putting an end to the two years of bullying. (Updated: Feb, 17, 2009)





Shah Meets Kennedy At White House

Apr, 13, 1962 AD

Mohammad Reza Shah meets President Kennedy, Robert McNamara in White House Washington, Cabinet Room  04-13-1962Mohammad Reza Shah met with President Kennedy at the white house on Apr, 13, 1962. Farah Diba, Shah's newly wed third wife accompanied him on this trip. On their arrival in US on Apr, 11, Kennedy welcomes him to the United States again. Since Shah's first trip in 1949, relations became stronger. Both CIA and Pentagon had established themselves in Iran. Underlying the fact that it was not easy to be a Persian, he pointed out the fact of several foreign threats and named Romans, Ottomans but stayed short when referring to friends from the south and enemies from the north, obviously meaning UK and USSR. He welcomed the Shah as a friend and a very valiant fighter who lived in the belly of the bear, thus using one of those phrases which belonged to the Cold War era. Kennedy emphasized on Iran's national independence, reaching beyond any ideology or national power. He appreciated Iran's efforts to maintain its national independence century after century. Kennedy added that the interests of both countries were the same: to maintain freedom and peace, and to provide a better life for their people.
Mohammad Reza Shah in response gave thanks for the invitation to visit America who he said had a magic meaning for the most distant communities of the world; associated it with freedom, progress, love of humanity, and justice.
The details of the meetings between the two leaders are not available but it's been marked that Shah was more comfortable with Republicans than Democrats who usually had issues like human rights in their agenda that irked the dictator. Nevertheless, Kennedy's assassination on Nov. 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas became a turning point in the American history towards a guided semi-democracy. (Updated: Aug, 26, 2009)





Lindel Johnson Arrives In Tehran

Aug, 25, 1962 AD

Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Shah, US president John F. Kennedy, his vice president Lyndel Johnson, U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara at Onslow Beach, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina 4-11-1962Lindel Johnson who was the U.S. secretary of states arrives in Tehran to meet Mohammad Reza Shah and other Iranian authorities. Johnson was delivering advices from John F.Kennedy's administration that would lead to reforms in Iran 6 months later called the White Revolution.
Lindel Johnson became U.S. president after Kennedy's assassination in 1963. (Updated: Dec, 3, 2007)





Peykan Car Factory Founded

Oct, 13, 1962 AD

Peykan HillmanThe Iran Nasyonal factory was founded in the Ekbatan street of Tehran with a capital of 10,000,000 Tomans on Oct, 13, 1962 and started manufacturing buses on March, 18, 1964 as a family business headed by Mahmoud Khayyami.
After some unsuccessful experiences in producing Fiat brand of vehicles, Iran Nasyonal company was initiated to produce latest model of British Hillman called Peykan. After an agreement was made with British Talbot company, in 1967, a production line of 60,000 units was inaugurated which reached 120,000 gradually.
In 1972 six models of Peykan were being produced including automatic transmission, Deluxe and semi-truck. On October, 19, 1974, another cast factory to produce 6 pieces of Peykan engines was founded. Peykan filled the streets of Iran making passenger transportation a national job. By 1975, Iran Nasyonal announced an amazing capital of $579,125,000 while the parent British company had gone bankrupt and foreign producers were engaged in a fierce competition.
After closure of the English Talbot company and cancelation of it's contract, a deal with French Peugeot was made to produce the 504 engine fit for Peykan. In 1992 some machinery from Talbot were bought and production of Peykan engine restarted.
On may, 15, 2005 the factory now called Iran Khodro announced halting Peykan production. At the time %98 of the car's parts were being produced domestically and Peykan had the title of the first national car before being sent to museum. Iran's monopolist car industry has been acting week in accordance with international realities; imposing high import taxes and duties and therefore condemning Iranians to low quality and expensive vehicles. (Updated: Dec, 10, 2007)





Sepah Danesh Corps Founded

Oct, 14, 1962 AD

Iranian Girl soldiers in their Sepah Danesh Uniforms march in front of the Senate building in Tehran, part of the propaganda campaign for the White Revolution reforms during the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.During Mehregan celebrations, the Iranian Minister of Culture announced foundation of Sepah Danesh on Oct, 14, 1962. Sepah Danesh was a special corps within the Iranian Army that consisted of soldiers doing their obligatory military service with a high school diploma. The main directive of Sepah Danesh was teaching illiterate people reading and writing.
The idea of forming Sepah Danesh was part of countrywide infrastructural reforms called the White Revolution. In 1962, %68 of the Iranian population lived in suburb; mostly small villages with no schools at all where illiteracy reached %95. The primary draft was approved by the Cabinet of Ministers headed by Asadollah Alam on Oct, 26, 1962. Detailed outlines of the Sepah Danesh project were concluded after consulting experts from the Ministry of War on Dec, 3, 1962. Members of the Sepah Danesh underwent a four months training at the Ministry of Education and were graduated as sergeant teachers before being deployed to their location of duty.
Until 1979 when the program was abolished, 18 groups of male and female soldiers whose number reached 100,000 teachers participated in the Sepah Danesh program. Some of them continued their career as teachers, instructors, trainers, etc. The outcome of the project was remarkable; 638,000 children and 262,000 adults were able to read and write during the first five years.
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi campaigned on the White Revolution reforms to modernize the country however; some of these top-down directives did not find enough popular support although they were good in essence. Free eight years basic education, free nutrition program for toddlers under 2 years of age and children at primary schools became part of the Iranian educational system.
The fight with illiteracy did not stop after the Pahlavi monarchy was toppled by the Iranian Revolution of 1979. The Literacy Movement Organization of Iran was founded and succeeded in eliminating illiteracy among Iranians to a rate of %15.4 in 30 years which a great achievement acknowledged and awarded by UNESCO. (Updated: Jan, 9, 2012)





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