The Iranian History 1961 AD

 


Nullification Of Fraudulent Parliament Elections

Jan, 9, 1961 AD

Mohammad Reza Shah presents a gift at the wedding of his daughter Shahnaz from first wife Fouzieh with Ardeshir ZahediThe twentieth term Majlis elections under a two party system took place on Aug, 17, 1960. Manouchehr Eghbal, the Melliun Party leader was in charge of running the elections against Mardom Party leaded by Asadollah Alam. Some of the outlawed National Front party figures such as Dr. Ali Amini and Jafar Behbahani participated independently.
Shah faced widespread fraud accusations made by Mardom Party and independent candidates. Public discontent reached a degree that Shah expressed his discontent with the election procedures on Aug, 27 during a press conference and announced the election results invalid. Four days later he asked all parliament representatives to submit their resignations and pave the way for healthy elections.
The official order for renewal of the 20th term Majlis elections were announced on Jan, 9, 1961. Majlis convened on Feb, 21 but fraud allegations were far from over. The heavy atmosphere lingered on the government until Jafar Sharifemami was forced to resign. Amini became Prime Minister and later asked for dissolution of Majlis. (Updated: Jan, 9, 2012)





Inauguration Of Melli University

Feb, 14, 1961 AD

Students from Sharif University of TechnologyThe inauguration of Melli University of Iran on the heights of Tehran took place with just 174 students. Primarily, this university had only two faculties of economy and architecture. In 1982 it was renamed as Shahid Beheshti university. In 1990 first courses offering doctorate degree in economy were opened. The university currently offers more than 70 master degrees and 30 doctorate degrees. Medicine, literature and foreign languages, science and technology, law, and geology are some of new faculties that have been added. (Updated: Feb, 17, 2009)





Majlis Twentieth Terms Begins

Feb, 21, 1961 AD

Pahlavi Prime Minister Dr Amini visiting Paris.In 1979, He moved from Iran to Paris, France. He wrote his biography published by Harvard University.He died on 12 December 1992 at the age of 87. His body was buried in Passy Cemetery.During Majlis elections in 1960, contested primarily by the Melliyun Party and the Mardom Party, charges of widespread fraud could not be suppressed, and the shah was forced to cancel the elections. On Aug, 27 during a press conference and announced the election results invalid. Four days later he asked all parliament representatives to submit their resignations and pave the way for healthy elections.
Jafar Sharif-Emami, a staunch loyalist, became Prime Minister. After renewed and more strictly controlled elections, the 20th Majlis convened on February, 21 1961. Again allegations of fraud against Dr. Eghbal in charge of supervision of elections were made. As economic conditions worsened and political unrest grew people took it to the streets and protests began.
77 days later the Sharif-Emami government fell in May 1961.
Mohammad Reza Shah named Ali Amini, a wealthy landlord and senior civil servant, as Prime Minister. Amini was known as an advocate of reform. He received a mandate from the Shah to dissolve parliament and rule for six months by cabinet decree. Amini loosened controls on the press, permitted the National Front and other political parties to resume activity, and ordered the arrest of a number of former senior officials on charges of corruption.
The Amini government, however, was beset by numerous problems. In addition, the prime minister acted in an independent manner, and the Shah and senior military and civilian officials close to the court resented this challenge to royal authority. Amini was unable to meet a large budget deficit; the Shah refused to cut the military budget, and the United States, which had previously supported Amini, refused further aid. As a result, Amini resigned in July 1962. (Updated: Feb, 21, 2013)





Teachers' Demonstration In Tehran

Apr, 21, 1961 AD

British two story Talbot buses seen on the Streets of TehranThe teachers of Tehran took their voices of discontent to the streets and staged a public demonstration in the historical Baharestan Square where the parliament is located. But things became ugly when the police attacked the demonstrators in order to disperse them. The Baharestan Square soon became stage of shootings and bloodshed. A teacher was killed and many others wounded. The incident triggered other demonstrations in Tehran and led to many activist teachers being arrested. To avoid a general strike and a nationwide protest, the government was dismissed and the cabinet of ministers changed. Mohammad Derakhshesh, one of the leaders of the teachers' protest became the minister of culture. Teachers' salaries were raised immediately and the chief of the Baharestan police headquarters was arrested. April, 21 has been named the teacher's day ever since. (Updated: Feb, 17, 2009)





Amini Becomes Prime Minister

May, 5, 1961 AD

Iranian politician Ali Amini after he was appointed as PM in 1961. In 1962, however, he was replaced by the Shah's close friend and a major Birjand landowner Asadollah Alam.He served as advisor to the Shah during the final days of the Pahlavi Dynasty.Dr. Ali Amini started his term as the 67th Prime Minister of Iran on May, 5, 1961. Mohammad Reza Shah was under pressure from US President John F. Kennedy. He was a member of the National Front, but broke away from the party in 1952. His pro-American tendencies were to the extent that made even the Shah uncomfortable. Mohammad Reza Shah in particular distrusted Amini's popularity and friendship with John F. Kennedy.
The first Iranian contact with new American administration occurred in 1961 in which Lieutenant General Teimur Bakhtiar visited Kennedy in Washington. Bakhtiar conveyed Shah’s letter to President Kennedy, using the opportunity to appeal for military-economic aid from the US. In the meeting, Kennedy said that he understood Iranian needs, the issue of foreign aid was up for review and W. Averell Harriman would be sent to Iran to visit the Shah. In Shah-Harriman visit on March 13, no assurance was given to Mohammad Reza Shah. Political unrests and uprising shook the country. To implement Kennedy Doctrine, the Shah dissolved Jafar Sharif-Emami cabinet and replaced him with Amini as the Prime Minister, encouraged by the US. The Pahlavi Regime had faced such a complex situation that American MPs described it a miracle if the US could save the Shah.
Amini's efforts aimed at a gradual change in Iranian economic and social structure that created more resentment than credit specially among the conservative ruling society. Land reforms, anti-corruption campaigns, and the economic stabilization program had alienated the most influential high classes in Iran. Therefore pressure was high and he was not given the chance to complete his Five Year Plan.
Hence, Shah hastily departed for the US in April 1962, visiting many influential political and economic figures of the country. In his sincere meeting with Kennedy, the Shah promised to change his priorities from military to socio-economic demands. He also could win the favor of Kennedy for his continued reforms. The initial political implication of this visit was dismissal of Ali Amini early in the summer. The Shah himself assumed the responsibility for controlled reform policies thereafter.
After 14 months in office, Amini presented his resignation to Shah on July, 17, 1962. He was replaced by Shah's close friend and a major Birjand landowner Asadollah Alam.
In the late 1970s, Amini attempted a comeback into Iranian politics at the age of 70. He served as advisor to the Shah during the final days of the Pahlavi Dynasty.
In 1979, Amini moved from Iran to Paris, France. He wrote his biography which was published by Harvard University. He was one of the main opposition figures to establishing an Islamic Republic at the time. He died on 12 December 1992 at the age of 87. (Updated: Nov, 17, 2012)





Amirkabir Dam Inaugurated

Oct, 25, 1961 AD

Amirkabir Dam Karaj is the first multi-purpose dam in Iran built in 1963Inauguration ceremonies of the Amirkabir Dam took place on Oct, 25, 1961. Mohammad Reza Shah attended the ceremony.
The initial studies for Amirkabir Dam took 22 years until 1956 when formal proceedings began and the final plan was approved in 1960. The Amirkabir Dam was constructed on the Karaj river. The ecliptic concrete structure is 180m high, with 30m length on bottom and 390m on top.
The Amirkabir Dam was built as a multi-purpose dam to provide tab water for Tehran alongside agricultural development in Karaj. The power plant has been connected to the national electricity network for over 46 years and the lake behind the dam is a touristic attraction while being a natural habitat for rainbow trout. (Updated: Oct, 6, 2009)





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