The Iranian History 1952 AD


Majlis Seventeenth Terms Begins

Apr, 25, 1952 AD

1952 Mosaddegh addresses a crowd of people in front of the MajlesThe 17th Majlis term started on Apr, 25, 1952.
The seventeenth term just like the preceding one was full of political turmoil. Election was carried out with some difficulties and some seats remained vacant throughout its unusual short life. Only 80 representatives were present out of 135. The issues related to Nationalization of Oil predominated most of the sessions.
Iranian Prime Minister Dr. Mosaddegh attended the hearings at the International Court of Justice. In a vote, the court ruled that it was incompetent to deal with the British claim regarding Iran's Nationalization of Oil industries. Amazingly, the British representative cast his vote in favor of the motion, which was passed 9 to 5. This led to complete break of political ties with the British government. The Majlis also terminated the Iran-Soviet 1927 Caspian Sea Fishing agreement and nationalized its facilities.
Mohammad Reza Shah fled from Iran, only to be restored to power in a CIA sponsored coup d'état called Operation TP-AJAX. Upon return, he promptly dissolved both Majlis and the Senate.

Other bills passed during this period :
- Special Powers Act in favor of Prime Minister Dr. Mosaddegh.
- Nationalization of the Iranian Telecommunication.
- Bill of foundation of public transportation services.
- Charter of Iranian Telephone Company.

Majlis 17th term ended on Dec, 19, 1953. (Updated: Aug, 16, 2009)

British Ultimatum On Bahrain

May, 2, 1952 AD

A mise-en scene of British Empire vs. Iranian Shah joint crisis discussing Bahrain’s declaration of independence which ends with secession of Iran's 14th province.In 1927, Reza Shah demanded the return of Bahrain in a letter to the League of Nations.Bahrain had been Iran's 14th province until the Europeans penetrated the Persian Gulf and it was occupied by the Portuguese in 1521. Bahrain changed hands several times but still was part of Iran although Iranians were never able to create a powerful navy. Dr. Mosaddegh was keen to return Bahrain under control when in May, 2, 1952 the British issued a formal ultimatum threatening Iran with war if Iranians did not step back.
Bahrain islands in the Persian Gulf were always a part of the Persian Empire until the Arab invasion in 7th century AD. It was occupied by the Portuguese in 1521, until Shah Abbas drove them out in 1602. Since the beginning of British colonization, in 1783 a tribal group known as the Caliph were installed to power and forced through a series of imposed treaties to stay a British protectorate (1820-1971).
On June, 2, 1952, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in an official note, warned the British government against signing any agreements with Bahrain. Britain had entered an alliance with Iran against the Portuguese during the reign of Shah Abbas 2. and had acknowledged Iran's sovereignty over the Persian Gulf and Bahrain.
Nevertheless, with lots of help from CIA, UK succeeded in overthrowing the Mosaddegh government in 1953 and installed the puppet Shah in Iran who did not oppose Bahrain’s separation from the motherland in 1971. (Updated: Nov, 8, 2012)

Great Iranian Uprising

Jul, 21, 1952 AD

Supporting Mosaddegh MajlisThe great Iranian uprising is one of the peaks of the Iranian history. Prime Minister Mosaddegh resigned from his job as a formality on July, 8 with inauguration of the 17th parliament term, but before accepting duty again, Mosaddegh wanted to secure more authorities so that he could act freely in the fight against British colonists. In a meeting on July, 25th Mohammad Reza Shah turned him down on giving him the powers such as appointing the minister of war, Mosaddegh resigned and Ghavamossaltaneh was presented to Majlis as the new Prime Minister on July, 18, 1952. As Ghavamossaltaneh's statement of harsh measures and punishments against dissidents was announced on the state radio on Friday July, 27th tensions went high between state and people.
National and religious leaders called for resistance against the martial law and soon factories and offices were closed and people poured into the streets on July, 21st. Violent clashes between people and armed forces left many killed and injured but led to Shah's stepping back and dismissing Ghavamossaltaneh after 4 days as Prime Minister. Mosaddegh was reassigned as prime minister followed by a major blow to the British as the international courts refused their cases against Iran's government thus leading to Nationalization of Oil industry in Iran.
This marked the end of Ghavamossaltaneh's political life. He was dismissed and Majlis approved a bill confiscating his properties. He lived in hiding for almost one year as he was aware that the tensions he had created could easily cost him his life. After the coup in Aug, 1953, charges against Ghavamossaltaneh were dropped. He lived for two more years and died on July, 23, 1955. (Updated: Jan, 29, 2008)

ICJ Dismisses UK Complaint Against Iran

Jul, 22, 1952 AD

Ahmadabad : Dr. Mosaddegh during the last days of his lifeJuly, 22, 1952, marks a great victory for the Iranian nation in the legal scene during the Nationalization of Oil movement. On this day, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) decided because Iran had only conceded to ICJ jurisdiction in cases involving treaties agreed upon after 1932, and as the only treaty cited by the UK after that date was between Iran and a foreign company (and not the UK itself), that it had no jurisdiction in this matter (Iran's original contention).
The case was a dispute between the UK and Iran, in which the UK alleged that the Iranian Oil Nationalization act of 1951 was counter to a convention agreed upon by the Anglo-Persian Oil Co. later changed to British Petroleum and Iran in 1933, which granted the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. a 60-year license in return for a percentage royalty.
On May, 26, 1951, the UK filed a complaint against Iran at the International Court of Justice, demanding that the 1933 agreement be upheld and that Iran pay damages and compensation for disrupting the UK-incorporated company's profits.
On the same day, Mosaddegh formed his second cabinet of ministers on July, 22, 1952. The British embassy and officials were evicted from Iran in October 1952 and Iranians were happy because of getting rid of the colonist state of Britain. Unfortunately, the United States no longer opposed intervention in Iran and got involved in a coup d’état in Iran in 1953 that is the root of all current anomalies between Iran & U.S. The British nonetheless are still selling their souls for petroleum under BP. (Updated: Jul, 23, 2010)

Bank Saderat Founded

Sep, 6, 1952 AD

Evolution of Iran's Bank Saderat Logos in time. The first logo was taken from an old ring that resembled the seal of a Sassanid king. The second logo was designed after the revolution. The last cheap logo shows two hands holding a coin.According to figures published in 1951, only %11 of all banknotes and coins in Iran were in bank deposits. This fact showed that people did not trust the state banking system. Understanding this vacuum, Ahmad Jalayer and Jahangir Tafazzoli were the main founders of the Bank Saderat which was registered on Sep, 6, 1952. The first branch of Bank Saderat started operating in Tehran's Bazaar on Nov, 3 with 13 employees.
Although Bank Saderat did not have those comparative advantages of public banks, its customer relations management worked as a successful strategy leading a rapid growth nationwide. On Dec, 31, 1953, the second branch was inaugurated at Qazvin Street in Tehran. Bank Saderat entered a serious competition with Bank Melli and began opening branches right at the opposite corner wherever its competitor had one. In 1961, Bank Saderat opened its first foreign branch in Hamburg, Germany.
After the 1979 revolution, inexperienced idealists, triggered by Toodeh Party took control of the economy and the whole banking system, including Bank Saderat was nationalized.
As a result of public sector's expansion and illegitimate loans, Iran's public banks have accumulated huge amounts of bad debts, international sanctions, and unqualified personnel have added to complexity of the economic puzzle. Bank Saderat currently has around 3200 branches and about 32000 employees and the state is in process of its privatization by selling its shares. (Updated: May, 8, 2010)

Iran Cuts Ties With UK

Oct, 18, 1952 AD

Abadan: Superfractionating unit, crude oil distillation unit and docks all shut down during Anglo-Iranian oil disputes-July-1951A couple of hours after Prime Minister Dr. Mosaddegh made an announcement on the public radio; explaining the reasons behind the government's decision to cut diplomatic ties with the United Kingdom, a draft in this regards which was earlier approved by the parliament was given to the UK embassy in Tehran.
Iranians then filled the streets and started celebrations. A group of people took down the embassy sign which was a symbol of imperialism for two centuries. Dr. Mosaddegh believed that most of Iran's misery could be attributed to U.K.'s imperialist policies towards Iran for two centuries. It was only after Nationalization of Oil industry, that Iranians enjoyed merits of free press for a short time and understood what some foreign states did to Iran to keep the country backwards. The British meddling was shown as the main reason behind separation of Makran, Herat and Bahrain from Iran. They used military might to install governments of their choice in Iran. U.K. was behind cultivation and use of puppy in Iran. The old fox also armed local tribesmen to incite revolts and uprisings against central government whenever necessary.
However, the good times did not last long and a military coup backed by U.K. and U.S. toppled the first democratic regime in the Middle East and changed the destination of the world forever. U.K. and U.S. are currently sawing the seeds of hatred they once planted. (Updated: Feb, 17, 2009)

Refining The Iranian Judicial System

Nov, 19, 1952 AD

Mosadegh 100th Year StampPrime minister Dr. Mosaddegh believed that in order to have social justice and freedom, it's necessary to have a functioning judicial system and therefore ordered Mr. Lotfi, the minister of justice to clean up the corrupted judicial system. Mosaddegh was himself a graduate from the faculty of law of Tehran University. (Updated: Nov, 20, 2007)

Price Of Gold Coin, Mosaddegh Times

Nov, 20, 1952 AD

Mosadegh's HandwritingTehran newspapers report price of 745 Iran Rials for Pahlavi gold coins while U.S. dollar exchange rate stands at 74 Rials. Those were times when Iran was under an economic embargo by Britain and could not export petroleum. (Updated: Nov, 20, 2007)

Purchasing Iran's Document Of Ownership

Nov, 23, 1952 AD

Nader Shah AfsharThe cabinet of ministers headed by Dr. Mosaddegh approves a draft to buy at whatever the price, the original document related to proceedings in Dashte-Moghan, a meeting between representatives from 35 Iranian provinces (including Armenia) that appointed Nader Shah as the new king of Iran in 1736. While agents of international museums, collections and antique smugglers were seeking to purchase this precious document which was found in a building in Khorasan, it was purchased from antique brokers and sent to the Iranian National museum.
In fact, Dariush The Great described in detail Iran's realm of 30 states (Satrapies) in the Behistun Inscription in 524 BC. Iran is the only country in the world which owns such proofs of ownership. One can imagine what primitive world powers would have done if they possessed such documents; with no pretext, they'd probably invade every country on the world map as they did to Iraq and Afghanistan. (Updated: Nov, 23, 2007)

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