The Iranian History 1948 AD

 


Iran-USSR Diplomatic Tensions

Jan, 31, 1948 AD

1948 Persian International OrchestraOn Jan, 31, 1948 Iran took her share of the Cold War between the two blocks. The U.S.S.R. submitted a note protesting American military presence in Iran. The Soviets clearly threatened Iran with military occupation referring to a 1921 agreement that gave them such a right to intervene in case of a threat from the Iranian soil. The Soviets criticized Americans for turning Iran into a military base to be used against them.
Iran responded on Feb, 4, calling the allegations baseless and considered it as intervention in Iran's internal affairs. Iranian officials not only denied any connection between employing American military advisors and the 1921 agreement, they also criticized the Soviet backing of separatist movements which in turn was a violation of the 5th item in the 1921 agreement.
Meanwhile, Majlis approved the U.S. military aid package on Feb, 17. The Soviet ambassador, who did not attend the Norooz greeting ceremonies at the royal court, on March, 24 gave another note in response to Iran's Feb, 4 note. Referring to harboring elements of separatist movements, they insisted on the Soviets' right to host foreign refugees and again compared U.S. military presence in Iran to Nazi Fifth Column operations. However, Iran had already submitted another note on March, 22 criticizing the Bolshevik propaganda against Iran in Soviet media.
Increasing diplomatic tensions created fear in Iranian public who had already experienced the misery after the Soviet occupation. News of Czechoslovakia coming under the Soviet domination, and the Brussels Treaty was another source of fear for Iranians who saw themselves as the next target of the Red Army. Most Iranian politicians advocated a mild approach to the Soviet problem and a moderate path that would not give any pretext to the Bolsheviks.
On April, 6, a milder response came from U.S.S.R. asking Iran not to take their state propaganda seriously. Iran had submitted all communications with the Soviet Union to the United Nations Security Council (UNSC).
On July, 1, Ivan Sadchikov visited PM Hajir and submitted proposals to end the diplomatic row between the two countries adding that if Kremlin was pleased, the issue of returning Iran's gold and other properties confiscated by the Soviets during the occupation would easily be resolved. Iran rejected Soviet proposals and refused to negotiate the issues that were Iran's natural rights. Although three separate cases of the Soviet invasion of the Iranian soil were reported in November, tensions decreased towards the end of the year and there was a major shift in Iran's north neighbor's policy, first time after almost 100 years. (Updated: Jun, 7, 2009)





Foundation Of The Senate House

May, 9, 1948 AD

The splendid Dome at the house of Senate in Tehran was an architectural challenge of the time reflecting imperial ambitions of the Shah. The Senate building is now used by elite clerics; members of the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership.The cabinet of Dr. Hakimi presented the bill for formation of the Senate to Majlis on May, 9, 1948. The idea of such a legislative entity first surfaced during the Constitutional Monarchy Movement but many Iranians saw it as some kind of a House of Lords that would be the voice of the few elite rather than public. Therefore it was off the agenda until the epic fall of Reza Shah after occupation of Iran by Allied Powers.
On Feb, 9, 1950 the Senate convened for the first time at the Parliament building right on the same date that Majlis 16th term began. Half of the 60 members of the Senate were appointed by the Shah and the remaining 30 were elected by people. %50 of Senate members were from Tehran. Ebrahim Hakimi was the Senate Speaker. Mohammad Reza Shah presided the first session, satisfied to have a legislative body on top of the Majlis. He could not guess that things would change during Nationalization of Oil industry.
In 1952, Dr. Mosaddegh leaded the Nationalization of Oil Movement which was a blow to British hegemony on Iranian national reserves. The Senate was against his policies; therefore Majlis prevented Senate members from entering the Parliament and it was practically dissolved.
After the coup of 1953 planned by MI6 and CIA, the Senate was revived.
The second term started on March 18, 1954. The Senate moved to Alireza Pahlavi's Palace in March 1955 while the project of a new building started. Designed by the Architect Mr. Heydar Ghiayi , the construction was led by Mr. Rahmat Safayi, a technically challenging project to quench strange imperial ambitions. Hasan Taghizadeh was Senate Speaker from March 1957 to September 1960 from Liberal Party. Senate second term ended on March 16, 1960.
Senate third term began on Norooz (March, 21st) of 1960 and it was dissolved by Shah's order on Dec, 3, 1961.
After two years, the Senate 4th term started on Oct, 7, 1963 after the White Revolution reforms that opened the way for female representation both at the Parliament and at Senate. The 4th term ended and the 5th term started on Oct, 6, 1967. Mohsen Sadr was Senate Speaker until September, 11 1964 from the Socialist Party.
The Senate 5th term ended and the 6th term started on Aug, 31, 1971. Jafar Sharifemami was Senate Speaker from September, 11 1964 to 24 March 1978 from the Rastakhiz Party. Mohammad Sajjadi was Senate Speaker from March, 24 1978 to February, 10 1979 from the National Front Party.
The Senate 7th term started on Sep, 8, 1978.
After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, both Majlis and Senate were dissolved. By new constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, legislation became unicameral, the Senate was dissolved and the new Majlis convened in the Senate building.
Today, the old Senate building is used by elite clerics; members of the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership (Updated: Nov, 8, 2011)





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