The Iranian History 1947 AD

 


23 Pishevari Officers Executed

Jan, 2, 1947 AD

Soldiers in modern attires stay guard by the statue of an Acaemenid spearman at Royal Guard Headquarters in Tehran23 separatist officers that had staged an armed uprising were executed. Soviet troops that were illegally inside the Iranian soil supplied them with training and arms. Because of the presence of the Soviet units, the Iranian army could not enter the region and had to take the matter to the UN. The Soviet leader Stalin was a dictator with expansionist dreams and was trying to reach the Mediterranean Sea through inciting revolts and creating proxy states in the region; and these were satellite blocs Russia was forming on her borders.
Finally on Dec, 12, 1946, the Iranian army entered Azerbaijan and the traitors were arrested and were brought before a tribunal four days later. The court ordered execution of the officers. Their charges were treason, conspiracy against sovereignty of the country and cooperating with foreign elements. The court was not as harsh on civilians. From 148 people arrested, only three people faced capital punishment. All others faced jail terms.
Leaders of the uprising were members of the new, separatist democratic party, an offshoot of the Tudeh Party. Ever since the Iranian Parliament rejected Russia's claim for oil rights in northern Iran and forbade any Government to negotiate such rights, Russia had been needling the Iranian government. The Azerbaijan revolt looked like the substitution of action for frustrated diplomacy. (Updated: Aug, 24, 2008)





Iran In The Truman Doctrine

Mar, 12, 1947 AD

Mohamed Reza Shah meets President Truman at the Oval Office Nov, 18, 1949The Context of Harry S.Truman's speech in Congress on March, 12, 1947 which was later named as the Truman Doctrine, was based on strategic position of Turkey and Greece and Middle East Petroleum as the fundamentals of the U.S. policy which also viewed imposing Totalitarian regimes on nations by direct and indirect invasions as a threat to American security. That gave the U.S. responsibility to help free nations financially and economically to resist against armed minorities and foreign powers.
Iran, as a major producer of petroleum fell quickly into this category. The U.S. Secretary of State's formation of a special office for Turkey, Greece and Iran affairs underlined the importance of implementing the Truman Doctrine which actually gave the Americans the pretext to intervene in Iran's affairs in the form of a military aid package signed on June, 20, 1947. A $25,000,000 budget was allocated to equip the Iranian Army and Gendarmerie with weapons. These aid packages created the basis for Americans to enter countries as wolves disguised as lambs.
On the other hand, U.S. military expenses which instigated a tremendous economic growth during the WWII, became a key factor in determining U.S. economic and international policies to the extent that wars in foreign land were often seen as a merit by American industries to create jobs without acknowledging the misery it brought to countries such as Cuba, Korea, and Vietnam.
In Iran, American image as a liberator was completely shattered after participation in a coup against a democratic government in 1953. (Updated: Jun, 7, 2009)





Separatist Kumeleh Leaders Executed

Mar, 30, 1947 AD

1326 Shams Pahlavi Khandaniha MagazineGazi Mohammad, the leader of the Kumeleh party who had secured support from Soviet Unions declared independence in the city of Mahabad on Jan, 22, 1946. Mustafa Barzani and hundreds of Peshmarge forces had entered from Iraq border and were actually leading the military operation for the separatists. On Dec, 24, 1945, in a meeting with the Russian consulate and a high ranking Soviet official in Tabriz, necessary arrangements had been made. Despite Soviets' obligations after the end of the WWII, Stalin was unwilling to draw forces from some parts of Iran. After Iran's complaint with the UN security council, international pressure started on USSR to withdraw. Meanwhile local citizens had taken the affairs into their own hands and were fighting with the separatist groups and 3 days after Iran's army crushed a similar group called Pishevari in Tabriz, most of separatist leaders escaped and Mahabad was taken back on Dec, 15, 1946. After a trial, Kumeleh leaders were executed in Mahabad's main square on March, 30, 1947. Mustafa Barzani escaped to Soviet Union and stayed there for more than ten years. (Updated: Aug, 17, 2008)





Majlis Fifteenth Terms Begins

Jul, 17, 1947 AD

1947 Sepahsalar MosqueThe 15th Majlis term started on Jul, 17, 1947.

Important bills passed by Majlis during this term were:
- Resolution disapproving the March 26th agreement on formation of Iran-Soviet petroleum company.
- Allocation of revenues from South Oil production for public infrastructure and industrial promotion for a period of ten years.
- General Amnesty for insurgents in Azerbaijan and Kurdistan.
- The bill for establishment of universities in provinces.

Majlis 15th term ended on Jul, 28, 1949. (Updated: Aug, 16, 2009)





Newspaper Unveils Foreign Conspiracy

Sep, 10, 1947 AD

1947 Tehran 1326 Lalezar StreetEttelaat Newspaper reported that Britain and Soviets had reached a consensus over Iran's North Oil. Under occupation, Iranian Prime Minister Ghavamossaltaneh was somehow forced to sign an agreement in Moscow on April, 4, 1946, granting North Oil concessions to USSR. The deal needed to be ratified by the parliament. Fortunately indeed, parliament elections were delayed until July, 1947 and the 15th Majlis convened on July, 17.
Ivan Sadchikov arrived in Tehran on Aug, 12 and immediately started lobbying for ratification of the deal. Ghavamossaltaneh submitted his resignation to the parliament on Aug, 28. According to the constitution, the new cabinet of ministers must be appointed by Shah and approved by Majlis. Sadchikov met Ghavamossaltaneh at his home the following day and gave him a note expressing Soviet discontent for the delay. The British joined the group pressuring for ratification of the agreement. It was the first time that UK policy was separated from US regarding Iran. The policy of United States was to eliminate Soviet influence as much as possible.
On September, 10, Ettelaat published details of secret meetings between the UK and USSR who aimed to revive their infamous 1907 entente which divided Iran between two spheres of influence. This reverted public opinion poisoned by Pravda, the Bolshevik propaganda media and its Iranian extension the Mardom Newspaper which was the official organ of the Toodeh Party. The articles continued to reveal related facts and findings until Sept, 14, when Ghavamossaltaneh denied any such meetings with the British ambassador, Sir John Le Rougetel. Following reports in western media however indicated such communication in British foreign ministry which made the matters further complicated.
After the Soviet ambassador gave his second note, asking Iran not to use a delay tactic, in a speech, the American ambassador to Tehran, George Allen underlined US strategy that was against any such pressure and threats against Iran. Ghavamossaltaneh, shrugged his shoulders in an interview on Nov, 9, saying that it was only within the Majlis authority whether to ratify the deal or not. He presented the draft to Majlis on Nov, 22. As expected, the parliament rejected the bill and asked the government to restrain from giving any such concessions to foreign states. The issue was closed but Iranian governments never dared fully use North Oil potentials. (Updated: May, 26, 2009)





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