The Iranian History 1946 AD


Tripartite Commission For Persian Affairs

Jan, 5, 1946 AD

Tehran 1946 AD  (1325 H) Bank Melli - National Bank of IranB.B.C. announced that Reader Bullard asked Iran to accept formation of a Tripartite Commission among U.K., U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. in order to discuss Iran's affairs, specially trouble in Azerbaijan where a separatist group declared independence. The reason behind formation of such a commission was to restrain Iran from pursuing a complaint filed with the United Nations after the Allied Powers did not show willingness to pull out their troops from Iran after the war; as promised in Tehran Conference.
Taghizadeh, Iran's ambassador to London announced that Iran was temporarily refraining from registration of this complaint, waiting for the parliament's decision on the Tripartite Commission offer. While the Soviets wanted to direct bilateral talks with Iran, Iranians preferred such discussions to take place under supervision of the United Nations. Iran actually lacked winning cards against her powerful Bolshevik neighbor and knew about their sinister agenda.
During a session held on Jan, 9, Majlis rejected the British offer of formation of the Tripartite Commission and PM Hakimi who presented the draft was harshly criticized and was asked to resign. On Jan, 30 the UNSC passed a resolution asking Iran and U.S.S.R., the two parties of the dispute, to start negotiations as soon as possible and inform the Security Council about the results. (Updated: May, 3, 2009)

Democrats Of Kurdistan Declare Independence

Jan, 11, 1946 AD

A historical photograph from Tehran's Naserkhosro Street with old cars and buses in1946In March 1945, several Iranian Gendarmerie units were killed near Mahabad and additional troops were deployed from Tehran. Soviet occupation did not let the Iranian army proceed through southern Kurdistan. They suggested that troops be deployed from Tabriz. Their aim was to weaken Iranian military presence in Azerbaijan where they were supporting another separatist movement; Democrats of Azarbaijan.
In Sep, 1945, Kurdish separatist leaders headed by Mohammad Qazi were invited to a conference in Baku and received full support and guidelines from Soviet authorities.
Soviets were planning to create an independent Kurdistan in the border area; in order to weaken Iran, Turkey and Iraq. In mid December, the National Kurdish Parliament in Mahabad was founded. Molla Mostafa Barzani and 3000 of his militia had arrived from Iraq and settled near the Rezaiyeh Lake in order to support the separatist Democrat movement. On Jan, 11, 1946, the Democrat Party of Kurdistan declared independence.
However, relations between the Turkish Democrat Party and its Kurdish counterpart were soon shattered by disputes over ownership of the cities of Khoy, Rezaiyeh and Shapour. With Soviet intermediation, a meeting was arranged between the Kurdish and Turkish Democrat leaders and on April, 23, 1946, the two sides reached an agreement. Thus they shaped a sinister plan to divide Iran.
Observers of the time agree on the fact that the Tsarist Russia never considered a future for Persia unless all Northern provinces of Azerbaijan, Mazandaran, Guilan and Khorasan were annexed. The same greed resurfaced after the Bolshevik revolution and it found its way through regional ethnic power struggles. The post WWII chaos was seen as an opportunity to divide the world among Allied Powers.
Fortunately, such separatist groups did not find popular support in Iran and with the first blow, they disappeared. (Updated: Apr, 21, 2009)

Prime Minister Hakimi Resigns

Jan, 20, 1946 AD

Pahlavi Document Nov, 8, 1945 Majlis issues Vote of Confidence to Hakimi cabinet. Majlis issued him a vote of confidence to proceed with the new government despite opposition by Seyyed Ziaoddin Tabatabaee and the Toodeh Party.After the end of the World War II, the Allied Powers did not want to end their occupation of Iran. Ebrahim Hakimi was forced to resign on Jan, 20, 1946. When he presented the Tripartite Commission offer to the parliament, the representatives were united against a new British scenario that was taking place and rejected the offer overwhelmingly. Headed by Mosaddegh, they also criticized Hamiki for accepting or even considering the offer which was a called new form of the disgraceful 1907 agreement. Just a day before his resignation, Hassan Taghizadeh, the Iranian ambassador to London submitted a letter to the UNSC committee. He was demanding the UN to deal with Iran's issue because it could lead to an international conflict.
Premiership of Ghavamossaltaneh was approved by the parliament on Jan, 26, with only 51 votes in his favor while 50 representatives voted against him. Being a Qajar prince, Ghavamossaltaneh was a big landowner and was disliked by the Toodeh Party. During his term as Prime Minister between 1921-1923, he had suppressed the Jungle Movement. He was the mastermind of the plan to use USA, as the third balancing power against UK and USSR during his previous term between 1942-1943.
Iran thus pursued her complaint against the Soviets with the UN because USSR was using every opportunity to weaken the central government of Iran since the day the Red Army entered the Iranian territory. On Jan, 24, USSR announced that the issue is not within UN authorities. Two days later, Taghizadeh resubmitted the complaint backed by a document showing that on Nov, 26, 1945, the Soviets had officially prevented a column of 1200 Iranian soldiers near Sharifabad of Qazvin who were dispatched to take the unrest in Azerbaijan and Kurdistan under control.
Months later, the serial numbers on the weapons seized from Democrat Party militia who created the unrest in Kurdistan and Azerbaijan matched those confiscated by the Soviet army from Iranian Barracks.
Mohammad Reza Shah as a puppet king did not have much power but most Iranians apart from Toodeh sympathizers wanted all foreign soldiers out. (Updated: May, 6, 2009)

Negotiators Return From Moscow

Mar, 7, 1946 AD

1946 Tehran 1325 Commercial District Lalezar StreetIranian negotiators headed by prime minister Ghavamossaltaneh return from Moscow empty-handed. He arrived in Moscow on Feb, 19 to resolve the issue that arose with presence of Red Army. On Nov, 26, 1945, the Bolsheviks that prevented Iranian military from reaching the Kurdistan and Azerbaijan provinces where a Soviet backed group had taken control and declared independence. Iran was a country under occupation by great powers at the time. Iranian politics in 1946 is a valuable case-study for researchers of political sciences.
Andrei Vishinski, the Soviet representative at the United Nations, in response to a complaint submitted by Iran, asked the UNSC not the interfere with ongoing bilateral talks which was indeed a trick for USSR and UK whose Anglo British 1907 Entente had already divided Iran between two spheres of influence, to gain time and install puppet regimes in the oil rich areas. Some Iranian politicians however, were trying to get as much support as possible from the United States and involve the US in this matter.
The Russian proposal consisted of 3 items including :
- Recognition of the independent state of Azerbaijan by Iran.
- Acquiring North Oil Concessions.
- Soviet military presence in a buffer zone that consisted of 5 major provinces north of Iran.
On March, 1st, TASS announced that the Red Army was evacuating partly from Mashhad, Shahrood, and Semnan only one day before the deadline to evacuate Iran from all foreign troops. The date, March, 2nd was agreed on during the Tehran Conference. Ghavamossaltaneh, disappointed from the Soviet attitude, could not expect any goodwill from the British either. He visited George Kennan, the US consulate at Moscow on March, 4 and expressed his dissatisfaction with Allied Powers not keeping their promises.
When Ghavamossaltaneh arrived in Tehran on March, 7, the Majlis which was nearing the end of its 14th term did not convene to hear his report, neither did he want to confront Russians who had already sent additional troops and stationed 16 tanks and 150 truckloads of soldiers on the Tabriz-Tehran road.
This wrong move by the Soviets triggered President Harry Truman to use his iron gloves for the first time. One day after Hossein Ala resubmitted Iran's complaint at the UNSC, the United States foreign secretary announced on March, 19, that the USSR had been given a note to explain the reason behind sending extra troops to Iran which created complexities:
1. Movement of Soviet troops near the Iraq and Turkish border created security issues for Turkey.
2. Soviet control of Iranian oil reserves constituted a threat to western economy.
3. Disrespecting rights of small nations and failing in fulfillment of obligations towards them could create further conflicts.
Surprisingly, on March, 24, just before the UNSC convened on the matter, Moscow officially announced that the Soviet Army was evacuating Iran completely in six weeks. In a meeting on March, 27, Hossein Ala, the Iranian ambassador to UN announced that there was no agreement between Iran and USSR and that the Iranian negotiators had been under constant pressure in Moscow to accept Soviet terms that ignored Iran's sovereignty. On April, 3, he reiterated Iran's firm position.
On April, 4, after hearing the reports, The UNSC accepted Iran's proposition asking the Soviets to evacuate Iran without any conditions while Iran kept the complaint until May, 6 when another UNSC session would evaluate the results. (Updated: May, 16, 2009)

Historian Ahmad Kasravi murdered

Mar, 11, 1946 AD

Ahmad Kasravi from younghood to death. Murderers at court.The famous Iranian historian Ahmad Kasravi and his assistant were stabbed to death at the Tehran courtyard. A plea by clerics against Kasravi was being proceeded when two of members of an extremist Islamic group attacked him with knives. On July, 17, 1951, Navvab Safavi and 3 other fellow members that took part in the assassination plot were condemned to death and executed 2 days later.
Born on Sep, 30, 1890 in Tabriz, Ahmad Kasravi served as a government official for some time and started writing books after he resigned from the ministry of justice in 1932. Most of his books were about social and historical issues and probably his most remarkable work was The History of Constitutional Movement. He was a secular researcher but he angered the Islamic hardliners by revealing their negative role in development of the Iranian society.
The same hardliner organization named Fadayian-e-Eslam was responsible for assassination of officials such as Hajir, Ala, Razmara, and Mansour. After the Islamic revolution, Kasravi's murderer was called martyr and a street in Tehran was named after him. Another such absurd action was naming another street after the murderer of the Egyptian president Anvar Sadat which caused Egypt to cut diplomatic ties with Iran, a very unfortunate incident in the face of the Iranian history. (Updated: Sep, 29, 2008)

Pishevari Arrives In Tehran

Apr, 28, 1946 AD

People walk around in front of the central post administration office, Tehran 1946Jafar Pishevari, the leader of the Democrat Party arrived in Tehran as the head of the Independent Azerbaijan government for negotiations with Ghavamossaltaneh on April, 28, 1946. Following a declaration signed by Ghavamossaltaneh and Ivan Sadchikov in April, 4, 1946, on Apr, 22, in a official declaration, Tehran expressed willingness to resolve the unrest in Azerbaijan by means of bilateral talks. Democrats of Azerbaijan were in fact a paramilitary junta installed and supported by the Red Army. Moscow was using Pishevari to push its own agenda which was obtaining North Oil concessions by all means and subsequently keeping soldiers in Iran to protect their interests at all costs to Iranian people. Well organized Toodeh Party and its supporters were playing a major role in this scenario.
Jafar Pishevari arrived in Tehran as the head of a delegation representing the Azerbaijan Republic. The negotiations had no outcome after two weeks when Pishevari insisted on retaining his own army, otherwise Tehran had accepted most of his terms giving Azerbaijan autonomy in many ways. Pishevari left Tehran empty handed.
On June, 11, a joint political and military delegate arrived in Azerbaijan to continue negotiations. Two days later, a draft was agreed upon between Pishevari and Firooz to be ratified by the next 15th parliament.
The British were not happy with increasing Soviet influence in Iran but were also reluctant to support Iran's complaint with the U.N. against U.S.S.R. until on May, 1, the Labor Day became the scene of vast demonstrations organized by Toodeh Party in Abadan. Although these demonstrations were peaceful, it gave UK an alarming signal that changed British attitude towards Iran as their interests in South Oil fields were in danger. (Updated: May, 19, 2009)

Abadan Workers On Strike

Jul, 14, 1946 AD

1946 Tehran 1326:Cars and people around the College intersectionThe workers of the oil industry went on a strike in Abadan. Despite the military curfew, the strike went on for 3 days. The protesters clashed with the police forces who wanted to disperse the protests. These encounters created bloody scenes. Two Arab contractors were reported dead and some of the British Oil Company's assets were damaged. May,1 had also been the stage of mass demonstrations which were peaceful in nature but raised an ire in Britain regarding increasing Soviet influence that threatened British interests in Iran.
British naval forces were quickly deployed and stationed at the shores of Arvand river. On July, 15, the British cabinet approved a proposition by the army deploy to Basra special 401 forces which mostly consisted of Indian soldiers. The measure was taken in order to protect British interests in the region just in case. Iran protested British action giving assurance that the situation was under control by Iranian armed forces. Meanwhile, Britain was arming tribal mob in Khuzestan in order to create forces to counterbalance Toodeh Party's growing influence. Ernest Bevin criticized Ghavamossaltaneh for not containing leftist groups and tied the worker uprising to political instability in Iran adding that the wages paid to Iranians working for the company was much higher than the average wages in Iran.
Prime Minister Ghavamossaltaneh, on the other hand was aware of the power of Toodeh communist party, founded Iran Democrat Party and presented his new cabinet of ministers on August, 1, 1946. Foundation of the Ministry of Labor, and appointing three ministers from the Toodeh Party was at the time a strategic move to appease the Soviet Union while containing worker unrest for a while.
Subsequently, on September, 20, Ghashghayi and Bakhtiari tribal leaders in a telegraph to Tehran; expressed their discontent with overall situation and took Shiraz under siege. Negotiations between delegates sent from Tehran had no positive outcome and Ghavamossaltaneh was forced to dissolve his cabinet and submitted his resignation on Oct, 17. Mohammad Reza Shah appointed him again as Prime Minister to form a cabinet without ministers from Toodeh Party. (Updated: May, 22, 2009)

Toodeh Becomes Democrat Party

Oct, 17, 1946 AD

1946 Masjed Soltani Bazaar TehranToodeh Party announced its dissolution in favor of the Azerbaijan Democrat Party, a separatist group supported by USSR. The separatist party's declaration on Sep, 3, asked for independence of Azerbaijan. The leaders of this party were actually the old communists of the Toodeh Party who were forced to flee the country when Reza Shah was in power.
Bolsheviks started distributing arms among separatist militants and Caucasian immigrants on Nov, 15. With help from the Red Army, the Tabriz garrison was seized. The following day, the Democrat Party organized demonstrations against the central government. On the same day, Sarab was occupied. Miyaneh fell on Nov, 18. Tehran deployed an army division to the region but it was stopped by the Red Army in Sharifabad of Qazvin.
The separatists sent a telegraph to Tehran with their demands that were mostly comprised of colorful slogans of democracy and independence. Tehran appointed the former PM Morteza Gholi Bayat as the governor on Nov, 28. With broad authorities, Bayat arrived in Tabriz on Dec, 1 but his negotiations were fruitless and he had to return to Tehran.
By Dec, 12, Democrat Party had its own national parliament and all government buildings besides Gendarmerie and police stations were under their control. On the same day, the government of Azerbaijan was formed headed by Pishevari. A covert agent who had fled to Russia in 1920 after his attempts to create a puppet republic in Guilan failed.
Bolsheviks were playing a sinister scenario to separate Azerbaijan from Iran by installing a puppet regime to take full control of North Oil fields; a plan that was destined to fail and reveal the truth behind the Toodeh Party. (Updated: Apr, 15, 2009)

Azerbaijan Separatists Busted

Dec, 12, 1946 AD

Sassanid Poledokhtar Bridge in Miyaneh, East Azarbaijan was partly destroyed by a mine that Soviet backed Democrat Party militia planted.After Iran had to accept the infamous Golestan and Turkmenchai agreements with Russia that took away the Kafkas area, Russians named the area on north Azerbaijan; same as the Iranian province and started interfering in the region. Soon a separatist group named Pishevari started armed uprising against the central government. A middle-aged Communist stooge from Baku, Jafar Pishevari, boldly proclaimed himself Premier of the new Azerbaijan provincial government.
But Iranian armed forces could not enter the region because Russian troops were present despite the agreement made in 1943 during the Tehran conference according to which all foreign forces were to withdraw their units. Instead the local patriotic residents had already started fighting against separatists. Finally, the Russians were forced to withdraw.
Four legions of the Iranian armed forces quickly entered the region on Dec, 10th. And stationed between Zanjan and Miyaneh. After midnight, attacks began on separatist forces and soon after they were dispersed and on Dec, 11, Iranian armed forces started their march towards Tabriz. When people heard Pishevari and his comrades had fled to Russia, the headquarters of the Azerbaijan Democrat Party were attacked and set on fire on Dec, 12. One of the figureheads of the separatist puppet group was Biria, the so-called minister of education who sought refuge at the Soviet hospital however, angry people caught him and tied him to the back of a Jeep, parading him around the city until his dead body was not recognizable. More than 500 of the Pishevari elements were executed even before the army reached Tabriz and put an end to one year of terror and oppression.
Celebrations continued for days in Azerbaijan whose people have proved to be very patriotic towards their national identity throughout centuries. (Updated: Aug, 24, 2008)

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