The Iranian History 1945 AD

 


Sidelines Of The Yalta Conference

Feb, 4, 1945 AD

Shahrefarang : First Iranian Movie Theatres so-to-say. Iranians got first glimpses from West through these units that could serve 2-3 at a time.Preceded by the Tehran Conference in 1943, the Big Three leaders of UK, US, and USSR held a conference in Yalta (Feb. 4-11, 1945) in order to discuss strategies and plans for the final months of WWII and postwar policies. Iran's issue was discussed although it was not in the agenda of the conference. The UK suggested to USSR to pull out troops from Tehran simultaneously in order to honor Iran's sovereignty as foreseen in the Tehran Declaration and to minimize common fear from a Soviet threat that arose after an ultimatum given by Russians when Iranians rejected to sign an agreement for the North Iranian Oil. Churchill who was aware of possible economic difficulties following the years of war and the risk associated with keeping exhausted soldiers in a far away land insisted on withdrawal even before the timetable.
On Dec, 11, 1944, Sir Reader Bullard, The British ambassador to Tehran asked his government to consider pulling out troops as soon as possible. Churchill was reluctant towards this proposal at first and London wanted to pursue a mild policy towards The Soviet Union. Britain wanted to keep the influence spheres which was a virtual border line actually dividing Iran between Britain and Russia in 1907. But the new player, the US wanted a share just as a reward for saving the Europeans against Hitler's army. Churchill informed Roosevelt about the proposal on Jan, 15 explaining that the Soviets were increasing pressure on Iran and that all evidences indicate that they were not willing to give up their claims on North Iranian Oil which indeed was an area covering 200,000 Square Kilometers including 5 main provinces bordering the Soviet Union. U.K. and U.S. had jointly protested Soviet tactics in Iran on Nov, 2, 1944. US agreed with this policy despite the fact that some American companies who sought opportunities in Iran were also deprived of the chances to enter the competition due to the law that later passed the Majlis on Dec, 12, 1944.
However, Stalin's reaction to this proposal was negative and they insisted on discussing the North Oil issue with Iranians. They also rejected the idea of a declaration at the end of the conference that included Iran. The Soviets apparently wanted to make the best of the situation and use their military might to impose any agreement possible before pulling out the Red army from the streets of Tehran. Indeed, their stance towards Iran during the conference was quite harsh and tyrannous. They denied imposing any pressure on Iran however, right after the Yalta Conference; the Toodeh Party intensified its campaigns against the Iranian government and criticized the decision taken by Majlis not to negotiate any agreements before the end of the war. (Updated: Mar, 1, 2009)





Russians Urged To Pull Out Troops

Mar, 3, 1945 AD

Mossadegh PM 1951Dr. Mosaddegh, the Tehran representative at the parliament protested Soviet Union's hesitation in withdrawing troops from Iran. He called USSR's leaders people who do not keep their words and do not respect international regulations and charged them of indifference against nations' rights. In his speech he asserted that such actions will make the world a jungle where the strong mauls the weak and asserted that Iran, unlike those East European states has a brilliant history and patriotic people. His words became headlines in the international media. 3 weeks later Truman, the U.S. president warned Russians that if they do not withdraw their troops, the United States will also send forces to Iran. (Updated: Nov, 30, 2007)





Churchill Responds To Hakimi

May, 16, 1945 AD

Iranian Shah Mohammadreza Pahlavi on TIME magazine cover 12/17/1945The Ministry of Foreign Affairs conveyed a telegram from Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister in response to Prime Minister Ebrahim Hakimi. In the message which was translated to Persian and delivered with the original, Churchill thanked his Excellency for congratulations on the occasion of the end of the war in Europe, and expressed hopes that the Japanese aggressor would be overthrown soon. He also expressed his gratification for Iran's siding with Allied Powers.
Iran's political maneuvers after or near the end of the WWII was mostly focused on preparing the ground for the occupation forces to leave the country; specially, the Soviet military presence in northern provinces caused much concern because Azerbaijan and Kurdistan were at the verge of separation from mainland as part of a Russian conspiracy.
Only 4 days later, on May, 16, 1945, Iran referred to this telegram as-proof of the end of the war and asked Allied Powers to leave the country. More than 25 centuries of statehood not only created buildings and cultural heritage but also a pattern of imperial foreign diplomacy each worth a case-study. (Updated: Oct, 15, 2009)





Iran Asks Allied Forces To Leave

May, 19, 1945 AD

25 year old Mohammad Reza Shah of Iran with visiting American Wendell Willkie during the later's stopover on world tour aboard his plane the Gulliver. Shah was taking an airplane ride for the first time in his life 1942The WWII ended in Europe by decisive defeat of German forces in the West Front, Poland and liberation of France on May, 8, 1945. Consequently, sending supplies to USSR through Iran was no more necessary and that was the main pretext for occupation of Iran. The Iranian government sent out a notice to the embassies of UK, US, and USSR to evacuate their forces as it was mentioned in Tehran Declaration.
The British responded quickly and positively and announced that they were willing to withdraw troops sooner than the six month period after the war. They also started a propaganda against USSR who was hesitating to comply with the terms adding that Bolsheviks were not engaged in the Japan war. This reason would give the British necessary excuses to keep some forces in south both for securing the supply route to far east and protect their interests in the oil fields.
The Toodeh Party was opposed to withdrawal of the Red Army. Their alibi was that Iran was not stable enough and the situation during Reza Shah's reign would be recreated if they left the country. It was clear by then that the Bolsheviks wanted to either install their puppet subordinates if not imposing an unwanted agreement on Iran. A powerful Iran would have meant claims on Azerbaijan, Herat and even Georgia.
The US also replied to the notice positively; stating that they planned to complete their withdrawal as early as June,1. The young Mohammad Reza Shah was flirting with the US at the time and already had employed American advisors. Americans requested keeping 3000 logistic personnel in south alongside 1500 people at the Abadan airport due to war in Japan to which Shah's answer was positive.
None of the occupation forces were willing to pull out troops from Iran indeed. Although UK and US had a comparatively positive instance towards Iran's request, there was no such sign from the Soviets, creating an atmosphere of mistrust. Obviously, they were all trying to gain some more time and enjoy the merits of having a rich country under occupation.
The Big Three agreed to discuss the issue at the Potsdam Conference, July, 16 - August, 2 1945 near Berlin. (Updated: Mar, 3, 2009)





Mohsen Sadr Becomes Prime Minister

Jun, 5, 1945 AD

Mohsen Sadr received his title Sadrolashraf after the death of his paternal uncle Seyyed Sadrodin, who had been the son-in-law of the very influential courtier Anoushirvan (Shir) Khan Qajar Qovanlou Ein olmolk, Etezadoddoleh (a cousin of Naseroddin Shah).Mohsen Sadr served as royal tutor to Salarossaltaneh, one of Naseroddin Shah's sons. When Mozaffaroddin Shah ascended the throne and Salarossaltaneh became the governor of Hamedan, Sadr served him as chamberlain.
After bombing of the Majlis in June, 1908, he was a judge serving in a committee that was accused of prosecution and execution of many freedom fighters during the Constitutional Monarchy Movement.
He served in many senior government positions in his career, such as President of the High Court of Justice in Tehran, Governor of Khorasan, Speaker of Majlis, and Minister of Justice.
Although Mohsen Sadr obtained the Vote of Confidence from Majlis with a reasonable majority on June, 5, 1945, since the beginning of his term, he faced great opposition from liberal and leftist group because of his bloody past in suppressing the Constitutional Monarchy. Moreover, Iran was under occupation of Allied Powers and in order to lead a powerful government, he saw the solution in silencing the voices of dissent again and he banned opposition publications which was a bad decision at the time forcing him to resign in less than four months and flee the country.
Ebrahim Hakimi succeeded him as Prime Minister. (Updated: Jun, 1, 2011)





Toodeh Unrest In Azerbaijan

Aug, 10, 1945 AD

Iranian cavalry units passing Darvazeh Dowlat, one of several gates to Historical TehranThe Toodeh Party had lost popular ground among people, however the central government was very weak; Bayat's cabinet fell after 4 months in April, 1945. Hakimi's cabinet lasted for only 20 days and PM Sadr had to resign after 4 months. People were hungry and jobless, and the Toodeh Party propaganda promised jobs for workers and land for farmers. In August, a group of farmers and peasants were ignited to confiscate land in Lighvan village near Tabriz leading to clashes among civilians that ended with death of a land owner and some of his aids on Friday, Aug, 10.
On Aug, 26 militia partisans armed by the Red Army occupied the police headquarters in Tabriz and cut communication lines with Tehran. Russian authorities did not let Iranian armed forces leave their garrisons and intervene. In less than two weeks, public offices in the cities of Chaloos, Sari, Shahi and Babol were occupied by Toodeh militia who had also taken control of railway stations alongside Bandar Gaz and Bandar Shah harbors.
Following these bitter incidents, for which the government could do nothing, demonstrations were totally banned in Tehran and some other provinces where government was still powerful. After several complaints, a state delegate, headed by army General Amanollah Jahanbani was deployed to Azerbaijan in order to find a solution. But negotiations between General Jahanbani and political and military representatives of the Soviet Union ended without any result. The Soviets did not want to leave Iran before separating Azerbaijan. No other political activities other than that of the Toodeh party were permitted to operate in north and any residence was crushed brutally by the militia partisans. (Updated: Apr, 1, 2009)





Majlis Approves Hakimi's Cabinet

Nov, 8, 1945 AD

Pahlavi era politician, Prime Minister Ebrahim Hakimi shakes hands with Mohammad Reza Shah during a greeting ceremony. Three times Iranian Prime Minister of Iran, Hakimi was born in Tabriz in 1871 and became a medical doctor in France.One month after Ebrahim Hakimi presented his cabinet, Majlis issued him a vote of confidence to proceed with the new government despite opposition by Seyyed Ziaoddin Tabatabayi and the Toodeh Party. His main object was to control tensions with the USSR and persuade the Soviets to end their occupation of northern Iran. Tensions specially escalated during the previous government headed by Mohsen Sadr who had banned publications of the Toodeh Party.
As Prime Minister Hakimi angered the Soviets by refusing to grant concessions in Northern Iran, while Soviet backed Democrat Party took over Azerbaijan and Kurdistan. The Red Army prevented Iranian troops from entering the region to put-down the uprising. Hakimi submitted the issue to the UN Security Council and resigned in protest. (Updated: Jun, 1, 2011)





English-Persian Glossary

Latest Additions to Iranian History Chronicle: