The Iranian History 1944 AD


Iran Cuts Ties With Saudi Arabia

Jan, 19, 1944 AD

Hajj Pilgrims perform rituals around holy Mecca in Saudi ArabiaAfter an unfortunate incident in which an Iranian pilgrim was executed during pilgrimage, Iran officially cut diplomatic ties with Saudi Arabia. Eye witnesses reported that in Dec, 1943, Abutaleb Yazdi, the 22 year old Iranian Haji suddenly got sick while doing the traditional tour around Kaaba. It was a hot summer day and he started to vomit. He tried to keep the spew in his garment and continue when a Saudi guard approached him and asked him what he was doing. He did not know enough Arabic and he was not in a condition to answer, thus; he was beaten and taken into custody and charged with knowingly trying to dishonor the sacred place. After brief proceedings, his head was chopped off in public. The rest of about 300 Iranians attending the pilgrimage were asked to leave Saudi Arabia.
There has been an ongoing sectarian violence between the Shiite and Sunni Muslims and this incident has been attributed to a misunderstanding. Iranians were then deprived of Hajj for almost two years and only after necessary assurances were given, pilgrimages started again. (Updated: Jan, 19, 2009)

Khosrow Golesorkhi Is Born

Jan, 22, 1944 AD

Iranian activist Khosrow Golesorkhi (b.Rasht 1322/1943 d.Tehran 1353/1974) and his comrade Keramat Daneshian two shining figures of the history of the Iranian peoples struggles were executed in the darkest days of the puppet Shah’s dictator regime .(Wikipedia) - Khosrow Golesorkhi was born on 22 January 1944, in Rasht. He was an Iranian journalist, poet, and communist activist in Iran during the Cold War. Famous for his leftist and revolutionary poetry, Golesorkhi was convicted along with his friend, Keramat Daneshian, a director, of plotting to kidnap the Shah of Iran's son. The military court was televised live, mainly because at the time of the trial, Shah was hosting the Conference for Human Rights in Tehran.
Meanwhile, people blamed the shah`s regime for the deaths (by a car accident) of the poet Forough Farrokhzad, a woman who promised the appearance of someone who would “distribute bread and cough mixture equally”, the tragic and suspect death of the folk hero and Olympic gold medalist wrestler Gholamreza Takhti in a hotel, the drowning of the writer Samad Behrangi in the Aras River, Ali Shariati’s death abroad, and the tortures, killings and executions of those who had taken to an armed uprising against the regime. Even before this the imperial Court had shown its aggressive nature with the knifing of Mosadegh’s young foreign minister Dr Hossein Fatemi by the Shah’s leader of thugs - Shaban Jafari, the burning to death of Karimpour Shirazi, proprietor of the revolutionary newspaper Shuresh (Rebellion) in prison by the Shah’s brother, the execution of Toodeh army officers, and the mass murder of people in the uprising of June 1963. This was the setting when Khosrow Golesorkhi and Keramat Daneshian stood up in front of the shah’s military court.
At his trial, just as it looked as if the military judges were getting the upper hand he turned the atmosphere of the court: “In the glorious name of the people. I will defend myself in a court which I neither recognize its legality nor its legitimacy. As a Marxist my address is to the people and history. The more you attack me the more I pride myself, the further I am from you the closer I am to the people. The more your hatred for my beliefs, the stronger the kindness and support of the people. Even if you bury me - and you certainly will - people will make flags and songs from my corpse”. When colonel Ghaffarzadeh, the chief judge, admonished him to stick to his defence he replied with a wry smile: “are you frightened of my words?”. The judge shouted back “I order you shut up and sit down”. Eyes flashing in anger Golesorkhi spoke passionately “Don’t you give me any orders. Go and order your corporals and squadron leaders. I doubt if my voice is loud enough to awaken a sleeping conscience here. Don’t be afraid. Even in this so-called respectable court, bayonets protect you”. Earlier Golesorkhi had defended himself: “Iranian society should know that I am here being tried and condemned to death purely for holding Marxist views. My crime is not conspiracy, nor an assassination but my views. In this court, in the presence of foreign journalists, I accuse the court, the fabricators of the dossier against me and against the irresponsible judges. I draw the attention of all human rights authorities, committees, and organizations to witness this stage managed farce, this state crime that is about to take place. The military court did not even give itself the trouble of reading my file. I am a Marxist-Leninist, I respect Islamic Sharia and will shout my views, for which I die, in a loud voice: nowhere in the world, in countries like ours which are dependent to and dominated by neo-colonialism, can a truly national government exist unless a Marxist infrastructure is created in society”.
Golesorkhi was given the opportunity to read a speech in his own defense. He began with some eloquence comparing the struggle of the Iranian left with that of Imam Hossein, the revered martyr of Shia Islam. He then continued to discuss the evils of Land reforms, as practiced by the Shah's regime, and the struggles of the Iranian peasants who first labored under the feudal system in Iran and then under the corrupt land reform. At this point, the chief judge of the military tribunal told him that he should limit his speech to his own defense. Golesorkhi responded by saying that his defense is the defense of the masses against tyranny. The chief judge said, once again, that he should only defend himself. Golesorkhi picked up his papers and said: "I will then sit down. I will not speak and I will sit down." He sat down and did not speak in his own defense any further. Once asked if he will continue his terrorist business he answered "Yes".
When the judge announced death sentences on both Daneshian and Golesorkhi they merely smiled. They then shook hands and embraced. “Comrade!” said Golesorkhi. “My best comrade!” replied Daneshian. Golesorkhi's execution was broadcast on state television. The court became a symbol of the Shah's dictatorship and hypocrisy, due to its content most of the trial proceedings was censored. After the 1979 revolution the entire trial was shown on public television during Mehdi Bazargan's government.
He was executed, and was acclaimed a hero by socialist Guerrillas because he wished not to be blind-folded.
The cell in which they spent their last night (February 17, 1974) in Jamshidiyeh prison was covered with slogans. They sang revolutionary songs all night, ate their supper quietly, shouted slogans to the soldiers in the lorry which took them to the Chitgar execution field, refused blindfolds so that they could see the red dawn and sang together in firm voice: “O comrades! heroes! We will give our life for our country without fear... They then themselves gave the order to fire!
Golesorkhi had written: “A person has an artistic eye whose art has a wider link with the people.... an artist has a style that forges a link to the life of the people of his land and keeps the torch of struggle alight in them. This style may not fit any literary school, just as the poetry of the Palestinian Fadayians does not. Why should it fit any literary school? Why imprison our poetry, which is our only effective art form, in literary and stylistic schools? The place of a poem is not in libraries, but in tongues and minds. Literature must retain the role it always had in social movements for us too in the displacement of social order, and fulfill it. The role of literature is to awaken. The role of progressive literature is to create social movements and to help attain the goals of historic development of peoples”.
Khosrow Golesorkhi and Keramat Daneshian were executed at the dawn of 18 February 1974. (Updated: Feb, 9, 2013)

Iran / U.S. Diplomacy Reaches Embassy Level

Feb, 10, 1944 AD

Abadan under occupation during World War II. Russian Pilots are assembling Airplanes arriving from USA in 1943. following Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in 1941, Reza Shah's son was installed as puppet Shah of Iran and ruled until 1979.The WWII gave the United States tools to become a major world player. A shift in U.S. foreign diplomacy was shaping towards imperialism and opportunities were sought to follow the Russian and British political trends. Roosevelt wrote in a note on Jan, 12, 1944 that Iran was a backward country and that made him afraid to use Iran as a sample for implementation of U.S. policies but he insisted in trying.
On July, 31st in a telegraph sent to the U.S. consulate in Tehran, the increasing importance on Iran-U.S. relations was underlined and U.S. expressed willingness to take a more active role in Iran's affairs including trade and commerce, foundation of air bases, and exploring the feasibility of petroleum related activities. Following this trend, president Roosevelt said that both countries had many reasons to become close friends on Sept, 2nd.
On Feb, 10, 1944, in a joint statement by the states of Iran and the United States, it was published that both states wanted to raise the status of their representation in each other's countries to the embassy level as a result of close mutual relationship. (Updated: Jan, 10, 2009)

Majlis Fourteenth Terms Begins

Feb, 26, 1944 AD

Reza Shah Pahlavi's ceremonial funeral in Egypt after his exile and death in Johannesburg 1944The 14th Majlis term started on Feb, 26, 1944.
The fourteenth term convened while Allied Powers still occupied parts of Iran. Political groups were formed following Reza Shah’s fall from power who shared Majlis seats. There were reports of unrest in some electoral districts. After the WWII, Iran had to deal with Soviet instigated unrest in Azerbaijan and Kurdistan.

Some of important bills passed by this term were:
- Forbidding Iranian government from negotiating and entering into any contracts related to granting of oil concessions to foreign entities.
- Approval of UN Charter signed by Iran in San Francisco.
- Permission for Iran membership in International Monetary Fund and The World Bank.
Majlis 14th term ended on Mar, 11, 1946. (Updated: Aug, 15, 2009)

Ararat Club Founded

Jul, 4, 1944 AD

Ararat Stadium is a stadium located in Vanak Neighborhood in northern Tehran, Iran and owned by F.C. Ararat Tehran. The Club was established on July, 4 1944 by a group of Armenian-Iranians, one of few clubs to have its own stadium and training facilities.The Ararat Club was established on July, 4, 1944 by a group of Armenian-Iranians. They named the club after the famous mountain of the same name. The club was run by an Armenian athletic organization and was one of few clubs in Iranian football to have its own private stadium and training facilities. The club has never had spectacular results, but has always provided talented players for Iranian football. It was heavily supported by the Armenian minority in Iran, but was also loved by many non-Armenian Iranians. The last time the club played in the top level of Iranian football was the 1995-96 season of the Azadegan League (current IPL). Due to the poor decisions of the club management, Ararat FC has spent most of the past few years playing in the 1st Division and 2nd Division of Iran's football leagues. Until recently the club had a policy of only employing Armenian staff and players, but with the team's poor form in the past few years, this decision has been overturned and non-Armenians have coached the team. The players though are all Armenian-Iranians. In the 2005-06 season the club came very close to promotion into the Azadegan League, but fell short in the last few weeks of the season. In 2007-08 season they took the last place in their group and relegated to 3rd division but in July 2008 Iran Football Federation Number of teams 2nd Division increased to 28 teams and Ararat still remain in 2nd Division.
Famous players:
- Mansour Amirasefi
- Garnik Mehrabian
- Karo Haghverdian
- Andranik Eskandarian
- Vazgen Safarian
- Mais Minasian
- Verezh Sarkisian
- Vigen Kuvaian
- Mais Hakopian
- Vigen Zinali
- Rafik Markosi
- Verezh Bakhshi
- Ishkhan Set Aghayan
- Zhures Ghazarian
- Markar Aghajanian
- Edmond Akhtar
- Samson Petrosian
- Fred Malekian
- Serjik Teymourian
- Edmond Bezik
- Robert Markosi
- Andranik Teymourian (Updated: Sep, 6, 2012)

Reza Shah Dies In Exile

Jul, 4, 1944 AD

Reza Shah MummyReza Shah Pahlavi who was living his last days of life in Johannesburg died after suffering from cardiac problems. His corpse was mummified and sent to Egypt where a ceremonial burial took place in his honor. Six years later, his body was brought back to Iran and buried in a mausoleum near Rhagae. After 1979 revolution, this monument was razed to the ground by Khalkhali starting an era of ignorance towards Iran's past. Disrespecting the dead and cemetries is a deadly sin according to Iranian ustoms and traditions, nonetheless; Iranian national heritage has always been the target of ignorance, greed and envy throughout centuries by Macedonians, Mongols, Arabs, and most of all some so-called Iranians.
After Iran became occupied by the Allied Powers, on Sep, 16, 1941 Reza Shah was arrested and sent to Bandar Abbas On Sep, 30 a British ship took him to Bombay. Ten days later, he arrived at the Maurice Island. He was kept here for some months and then sent to South Africa on March, 27, 1942 where he was reported dead after a suspicious heart attack. He was succeeded by his son Mohammad Reza who was the perfect type to be a puppet king for the enemies of Iran. (Updated: Aug, 11, 2008)

Saed Presents Cabinet Of Ministers

Sep, 6, 1944 AD

Children enjoy an animated show which was the first form of the Iranian Cinema called Shahrefarang (the western city) on the streetsA couple of days after Mohammad Saed Maraghei resigned as Prime Minister, he was asked to return to duty and govern Iran under occupation. As he was presenting his cabinet of ministers and his programs, the Soviets and their Toodeh Party were pressuring Iran to sign a deal that granted exclusive rights of North Oil. The fact that Saed was born in Georgia and fluent in Russian did not stop his patriotic Iranian roots from resisting against unfair demands of the occupation forces. Some blueprints of his program were:
1. Law Enforcement across the country and securing judicial independence.
2. A price policy to counter inflation and preventing stockpiling of necessities by profiteers.
3. Implementation of mandatory education and revision of school system.
4. Creation of puppy fields in the country which was limited during Reza Shah.
5. revision of the election law and presenting a draft to Majlis accordingly.
During his term, he recognized Syria, Lebanon, Israel as country and initiated political relations with the Republic of France.
His government's life did not last long and he was forced by the Soviets to resign after only 2 months. (Updated: Oct, 6, 2009)

Saed Stands Against USSR

Oct, 9, 1944 AD

Occupation forces of the Allied Powers in Abadan during Wolrd War II. Soviet pilots arrived in Abadan airbase for acceptance of the Lend-Lease and ferrying aircraft to the USSR. Meanwhile they dried out Iran's resources causing large scale femine.A Soviet delegate of petroleum experts, headed by Sergei Kavtradze visited Iran on Sep, 15, 1944 and complained about PM Saed's attitude towards Russians in a meeting with Shah on Oct, 1st. Saed was reluctant to sign an agreement while Iran was under occupation. In a closed session at the parliament on Oct, 8, he announced that his cabinet of ministers suspended such negotiations until the end of the war when the world economic situation would become clear. On the same day, the minister of the royal court informed the British and American consulates in Iran that Shah had decided to cut the negotiations after learning that the Russians requested other mining concessions besides petroleum in the north exclusively, rejecting any competition from other companies. The next day Kavtradze was notified by Saed that Iran would not sign any agreements while the war continued.
Consequently, offers from three U.S. companies: Standard Oil Co., Socony-Vacuum Oil Co, and Sinclair Oil Corp which sought concessions in southwestern Iran were rejected.
Following the governments clear rejection of the Russian offer, Kavtradze openly denounced the decision in a press conference on Oct, 24. After briefing the reporters about the merits of signing the deal such as creation of jobs for Iranian workers, construction of roads and buildings, development of industries and positive impacts on other sectors such as agriculture. Then he boldly announced that the Soviets would not enter further direct negotiations with the Iranian government and all future correspondence would be limited to the political channels in Moscow. Three days later, supporters of the Toodeh party staged demonstrations in Tehran accompanied by Soviet tanks and troops. About 20 of the parliament representatives who were supporters of the Toodeh party started insults against Saed and leftist newspapers started a propaganda campaign that led to more demonstrations in Rasht, Tabriz, Isfahan, Qazvin and Mashhad. Russian army provided logistics and transportation means that brought in participating people from nearby cities and villages. In Tabriz, the police stopped the demonstrators from taking over public buildings after which the Red Army disarmed the Iranian forces and expelled the governor from Tabriz.
There were riots and clashes among Toodeh party supporters and the nationalist front that formed an alliance in support of Iranian government's decision. Some people were injured and killed including a Soviet officer.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, petroleum became a strategic material and countries like Iran with huge oil reserves became scene of behind-the-doors dirty tricks, bribery, and political games that led to coups, bloodshed, and pain instead of raising social welfare level of the nation.Russia's ramifying political influence caused the resignation of Iran's Premier Mohammad Saed Maraghei after he rejected a Russian request for oil concessions in northern Iran. (Updated: Jun, 11, 2009)

USSR's Ultimatum To Iran

Nov, 8, 1944 AD

First Iranian bank note worth 10 Irls with Mohammad Reza Shah's photoOn Nov, 8, 1944, the Soviet Ambassador submitted an ultimatum asking the Iranian government asking for handing over the killer(s) of a Soviet officer during demonstrations three days earlier. Following Iran's rejection of an unfair treaty which the Soviet Union wanted to impose during the war, the Soviet backed Toodeh party had staged several riots around the country that led to deaths and injuries. Prime minister Saed who now had the backing of a great alliance of nationalists including Mohammad Reza Shah, stood firmly against the Bolshevik arrogance that followed years of imperialistic tsarist Russia. In Tehran, the Toodeh party headquarters had been seized by Iranians and some of their high ranking leaders were arrested before a planned meeting on Nov,7. However, the Soviet ultimatum was quite serious and threatened that the Red Army would take matters in its own hands.
Saed submitted his resignation on Nov, 9 to prevent further tensions and he was thus squeezed out of office.
Mosaddegh was the favorite candidate Prime Minister but his precondition to be able to return to Majlis in case he was forced to resign was found impossible and thus the next choice Mr. Morteza Gholi Bayat was appointed Premier after two weeks of impasse. Bayat presented his cabinet of ministers to Shah on Nov, 25. The following day, while introducing his new cabinet to the parliament, he announced following Saed's policies regarding the petroleum issues. Meanwhile the Russian delegate headed by Kavtradze who had been in Iran since Sep, 15, 1944 was lobbying to change the instance of the Iranian government towards the Soviets regarding the North Oil deal.
This rang a bell for the parliament. On Dec, 12, Iranian authorities were banned from direct negotiations with foreign government or company regarding oil concessions. The draft became a law by the majority of representatives; according to which:
-All Iranian officials including the Prime Minister and his deputies and representatives were banned from negotiating oil issues with any states or companies or signing any documents related to this matter.
-The PM and his ministers were able to run negotiations relate to the sales of oil supplied by Iran giving necessary information to the parliament .
-A jail term of 3-8 years, and life-time deprivation of public duty was foreseen for violators of this law.
-The judiciary was given the authority to act in this regards without having to get any approval from the government.
The draft presented by Dr. Mosaddegh was termed "Negative Equilibrium" for it was aimed to prevent giving any concessions to either Soviets or British which were occupying the country at the time. The following day, Rahimian the Ghoochan representative presented another draft to cancel the D'Arcy agreement but no one other than the Toodeh Party representatives agreed to sign the draft which was only aimed to create more tensions. (Updated: Feb, 26, 2009)

Bayat Presents Cabinet

Nov, 25, 1944 AD

Abolhasan Ebtehaj, Governor of the National Bank of Iran, from Tehran and Alexander Argyropulos who represents the Greek government arrive at LaGuardia field, New York, on June 21, 1944 to attend United Nations Monetary Conference.Morteza Gholi Bayat was an Iranian political figure who was very active during the Constitutional Monarchy Movement. He continuously became parliament representative from Arak from 4th to 13th term of Majlis and was mostly the deputy of the Majlis speaker. He was a minister both in Soheili and Saed cabinet. Prime Minister Saed was forced to resign after rejecting Soviet pressures to obtain oil concessions in north Iran. The Soviet backed Toodeh party gained much political power in that era when Iran was under occupation of Allied Powers.
Bayat became Prime Minister in November, 1944 with 50 votes in his favor. He presented his cabinet for approval on Nov, 25, 1944.
During his short term administration (5 months and 20 days);
- Tehran declared war on Japan.
- French leader Chares De Gaulle visited Iran.
- Dr. Millspaugh was relieved from the Treasury.
In order to obtain full Majlis backing to continue his work, on Apr, 17, 1945, he requested the parliament to renew his vote of confidence which Majlis denied and he presented his resignation on May, 2, 1945,
Ebrahim Hakimi was the next Prime Minister. (Updated: Jun, 6, 2011)

Warning From India About U.S.

Nov, 26, 1944 AD

World War II; Occupation forces: British,Russian,American Commanders celebrating in QazvinA classified letter from Ali Motamedi, Iranian representative in India is delivered to Prime Minister Saed on Nov, 26, 1944. The report that was dated Sep, 5, 1944 indicated a shift in the U.S. policy after the WWII which used to be based on non-interference in other countries’ internal affairs.
The main scene of the change is in India which US eyed for its strategic location in order to run operations against Burma and Japan. Therefore, Americans were interfering seriously in political activities through provocation of public discontent. U.S. was not indifferent towards Iran, Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Turkey and Egypt. In each case US GIVES itself the right to interfere: for petroleum in Saudi Arabia, Jewish immigration to Palestine, are pretexts for US imperialism to open its way in the world. According to Americans, Indian soldiers are labeled as sinecure and yes-man of their British Lords to whom sense of liberty needs to be taught.
The timing and content of this letter is very interesting to be studied in the timeframe it was written, warning about a possible US/UK confrontation. Meanwhile, the Iranian politicians were playing the American card to get rid of the Soviet occupation in the north.
Western creation of an apartheid regime on Palestinian lands discriminating the native citizens is one of those issues warned at the time of Mr. Motamedi. Although the British masterminded such a phenomenon for constant conflict in the Middle East, US/UK somehow put their differences aside in time and the latter acknowledge US as the new Imperial master of the world, though the old fox seems to be a conductor, running its own agenda in backstage..
***The material in this article is primarily based on Iranian National Library Document #: 11269 - 102011, and articles: #76, #920 on*** (Updated: Jul, 16, 2010)

English-Persian Glossary

Latest Additions to Iranian History Chronicle: