The Iranian History 1943 AD

 


Russians Force Iran To Unfair Treaty

Jan, 23, 1943 AD

Iran was occupied by Allied Powers during WWII. A convoy of trucks is hauling foor and other supplies from Iran to USSR leaving local people in misery. Millions of people starved from hunger during a war in which Iran had declared neutral.Iran was under occupation of Allied Powers since Aug, 25, 1941.
Although the Red Army had confiscated most weapons and ammunition belonging to the Iranian Army, they also threatened to dismantle and move Iranian factories to Russia. In order to prevent this from happening, on Jan, 23, 1943, Iran had to accept another unfair agreement according to which; Iranian weapon factories were to produce Red Army orders. While only %20 of total production was Iran's share, Iranians had to undergo all expenses. The prices were to be determined in an unknown future and factories were to operate under Russian supervision.
Most of the pressure imposed on Iran by the Soviet Union had economical essence however, they were also able to use their political and military might whenever needed. The Russian embassy and consulates all around Iran have always been primary tools for manipulating key Iranian officials, orchestrating propaganda, and organizing pressure groups and lobbies.
In March, 18, 1943 another agreement was signed between the two states that forced Iran to allocate a credit line of over 2 million dollars to be used for the expenses of the USSR Army in Iran. While the Bolsheviks agreed to give merchandise in return, goods that were imported to Iran without paying tariffs and taxes were not delivered to authorities, and they were sold in black markets. Money from these sales went back to U.S.S.R., naturally.
Dr. Millspaugh, a US citizen who was hired by Iran to modernize the Iranian Ministry of Finance, reported that U.S.S.R. was trying to force Iran to pay them the money received as loan from the United States. This way, Iran was feeding the Big Bear financially while millions of Iranian citizens were starving from hunger. (Updated: Feb, 13, 2009)





Dr. Millspaugh Arrives In Tehran

Jan, 29, 1943 AD

Pahlavi Banknote 10 Rials Reza ShahOn Jan, 29, 1943 Dr. Millspaugh, an advisor of American Economic Mission arrives in Tehran as the new Treasurer General of Persia. Iran was caught in the middle of the WWII and actually occupied by Allied Powers. Resources were drying up and better management was needed to regulate affairs. Dr. Arthur Millspaugh was faced with lots of objection not only by Russians but also by some merchants who were enjoying huge profits from stocking necessities. An orchestrated fight against him began soon in the media and in the parliament. Indeed Millspaugh had succeeded in controlling high inflation and making necessities available. After a while, the Toodeh party which was officially tied to the Soviet Union started criticizing his policies specially his efforts to impose income taxes and accused him in meddling in Iran's foreign affairs.
Finally on June, 22, 1944 Majlis approved a bill that stripped Millspaugh from all his powers. Dr. Millspaugh submitted his resignation the next day, however as there was no one else to replace him, Majlis had to change its decision and he was asked to continue his work again. He accepted to resume his responsibilities but in a press conference, he said that the U.S. should be recognized as Iran's liberator and if it was not for his efforts anarchy and chaos would have given the British and Soviets the excuse to control the country by force, or Iran would be occupied by international forces or another dictator would have been installed. He was however content with general public's support and grace for his work. He believed that Iranians needed to pay taxes, honor regulations rather than relations and that state offices should become clean from sloth and bribery. There was a trend in Iran that supported a third power to balance the role of Britain and Soviets.
After Millspaugh dismissed Ebtehaj, the head of Iran's Melli Bank from duty, wave of discontent, and criticisms finally made the parliament ratify another bill on Jan, 8, 1945 which took away all his authorities and left him with only the status of advisor. He did not get any support from the U.S government and was forced to resign and go back to the U.S nine days later. The U.S. government in a note expressed regret because the Iranian authorities did not give the American economic mission enough support to continue although Millspaugh and his team were sent to Iran by Iran's own request. The American military missions however continued their work as they were taking orders directly from the U.S. Secretary of State. (Updated: Jan, 7, 2009)





Soheili Presents Cabinet

Feb, 17, 1943 AD

Tehran 1943: Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister shakes hands with his appointed puppet king Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. On the left Ali Soheili, the Iranian Prime Minister who provided for Tehran Conference is seen.Ali Soheili became Prime Minister for a second term after Ghavamossaltaneh did not comply with unfair terms imposed by occupation forces on Tehran and famine broke out. It was clear that Soheili was the puppet Prime Minister to obey Allied Powers word-by-word.
In order to address public discontent due to poverty and famine, Soheili presented a program to provide essential necessities. At that time people believed that they were kept in hunger deliberately in order to be contained, a fact that was somehow correct. By distributing food coupons, the government levied a controlling power on public while using the same tools; they gave concessions to those who cooperated with the occupation forces.
Dr. Millspaugh oversaw the distribution process and set quotas for every province. The Soviets were in charge of the Northern provinces while the British controlled the south of Iran. The Allied Powers had a dedicated share of the food distributed, apart from the fact that they were confiscating Iran's agricultural products and their very presence was the reason behind most shortages.
Meanwhile, certain elements close to the Pahlavi court were getting extra benefits and the Soheili cabinet was preparing for an election whose outcome was dictated from outside.
On Dec, 1st, The Allied Powers gathered in Iran and issued the Tehran Declaration two weeks before the Soheili cabinet resigned on Dec, 14, 1943.
***This article is primarily based on Iranian National Library Document #: 509/24-116002*** (Updated: Jul, 16, 2010)





Iran Declares War On Germany

Sep, 9, 1943 AD

The commemorative plaque installed in the chapel of the Sisters of Charity by the Polish community in lsfahan on October 7, 1943Despite Iran's neutrality at war, UK and USSR forces invaded Iran in August 1941. On Aug, 24, one day before the invasion, a British destroyer enters the Persian Gulf declaring that it needed supplies. Welcomed by the Iranian naval units, the captain of the Palang battleship offers help with great hospitality just to see that the following day at dawn it was being bombed by the British navy.
The occupation forces deposed Reza Shah and pressure Iran to declare war on Germany. Twenty years of friendly relationship with Germany thus came to an end on Aug, 9, 1943. Iran had to cut diplomatic ties with Japan for the same reasons in March and on April, 13 officially announced the decision to the Japan Ambassador to Tehran. On July, 5th Iran announced willingness to join the League Of Nations. (Updated: Nov, 16, 2008)





Iran Joins The United Nations

Sep, 14, 1943 AD

Iran under occupation, Pahlavi era 1943 Allied Powers propaganda : a female doctor probably a missionary examines poor children during occupation by allied forces.Iran, under occupation did not have much choice. After declaring war on Germany and cutting diplomatic ties with axis countries Iran's ministry of foreign affairs announced the decision to join the League Of Nations to the Soviets, Britain, and U.S.A. who were occupying the country. This move was somehow to stay by the winning side towards the end of the war. On Sep, 14, 1943, Iran officially became a member of the United Nations.
The headlines in the Times Newspaper on Sep, 15th said that Iran has entered a new phase by joining the United Nations and this event was the end of the country's occupation.
Iran's declaration of war on Germany was in fact just a political formality that added to the prestige and credit of the country. The Shah who wanted Iran to have a share in the war was somehow happy with the situation because while raising the morals of the army, he could get help and support. (Updated: Nov, 16, 2008)





Vote Of Confidence For Soheili

Oct, 31, 1943 AD

The first US Navy warship to visit Persian Gulf was Ticonderonga which passed the Strait of Hormoz in Dec, 1879. With the start of the World War II, Allied Powers invaded Iran. This gave US a pretext for continuous presence in the Persian Gulf.More than eight months after Soheili presented his cabinet of ministers and started serving as Prime Minister, Majlis approved his cabinet. Iran was under occupation of Allied Powers; U.K., U.S., and U.S.S.R. and Mohammad Reza Shah was just an appointed puppet after his father was overthrown and sent to exile by the occupation forces. The whole parliament approval scenario seems to serve as legitimizing later documents signed by the Iranian government.
In less than a month, on Nov, 28, Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill arrive In Tehran and sign the famous Tehran Declaration. Iran signed many concessions afterwards which were not in her favor as a sovereign country.
Soheili's cabinet did not last long and he resigned on April, 6, 1944.
Soheili was born in Tabriz from a poor family and he made his way up the political scene with hard effort. After serving as Minister of Internal Affairs in Hasanali Mansour's cabinet, he first became Prime Minister on March, 9, 1942.
Soheili passed away in London in 1958 at the age of 62. (Updated: Jun, 1, 2011)





Iran Offers Oil Concessions To The U.S.

Nov, 15, 1943 AD

Welcome Shah WashingtonDuring the WWII, Iranians tried their best to use the U.S. as a third option against U.K. and U.S.S.R. Early in February 1943, Iranian officials in Washington entered negotiations with the Standard Vacuum oil company. On Nov, 15, 1943, the Iranian PM Soheili officially asked the American Plenipotentiary minister to convey his majesty's willingness to grant oil concessions to the American companies. Stakes were high and the Royal Dutch Shell company wanted to secure her share of the rich oil fields. Behind the doors, the U.S. and U.K. representatives started negotiations on sharing the oil resources in the Middle East on March, 7, 1944. The two states had already agreed to respect British interests in Southern Persia and Iraq, in return for recognizing U.S. interests in Saudi Arabia.
Iranians were willing to engage Americans in the South East region somehow. The British were not willing to lose their shares while Sinclair, another American company entered competition thus reinforcing Iran's negotiation power.
Saed's cabinet founded a commission and hired two American experts named Curtice and Hoover to study the case and investigate opportunities under Millspaugh's supervision. Operations of this commission were to be kept secret. In August 1944, negotiations between this commission and oil companies had reached a level that the U.S. Ambassador to Tehran publicly announced that a deal would be made soon and a draft would be presented to the parliament for ratification on September, 1st.
Public opinion was generally in favor of such a deal as Iran needed the currency to import necessities. The Soviet Toodeh Party however was discontent with the situation and insisted that no agreement was to be signed before occupation forces left Iran. As the issue heated up in the media, Saed's government was called to the Majlis in June and most of representatives expressed their unhappiness with the situation. Meanwhile, the Soviet government sent a mission to Iran in order to discuss such oil concessions. In the end, no new agreements could be made but this event somehow marked the beginning of the U.S. active policy in Iran. (Updated: Jan, 17, 2009)





Stalin, Roosevelt And Churchill In Tehran

Nov, 28, 1943 AD

Tehran Conference 1943Despite the fact that Iran had declared neutrality during the WWII, both Russia and British troops invaded Iran from north and south. During this conference, important strategic decisions had been made on the war. The meeting among leaders of Soviet Union, United States, and Britain had been arranged during an earlier meeting in Moscow among foreign ministers. Iran's sovereignty was guaranteed under the closing statement and Mohammad reza Shah Pahlavi, the last Iranian king who was 23 at the time met briefly with the three leaders. After this event three major streets in Tehran were named after Joseph Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. All these streets were renamed afterwards because all occupying states proved to be obnoxious for Iranians. (Updated: Nov, 29, 2007)





The Tehran Declaration 1943

Dec, 1, 1943 AD

1900 Darvazeh Ghazvin GateIn a meeting between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin in Tehran between November 28 and December 1, 1943, the chief discussion centered on the opening of a second front in western Europe. Stalin agreed to an eastern offensive to coincide with the forthcoming Western front. Postwar occupation of Germany was discussed but all three leaders appeared uncertain as to the specifics of the country's reorganization.
Broader international cooperation also became a central theme of the negotiations. In Tehran, Roosevelt outlined for Stalin his vision of the proposed organization in which the future United Nations would be dominated by “four policemen” (US, Britain, China, and Soviet Union) who would have the power to deal immediately with any threat to the peace and any sudden emergency which requires action.
The Tehran Declaration:
We the President of the United States, the Prime Minister of Great Britain, and the Premier of the Soviet Union, have met these four days past, in this, the Capital of our Ally, Iran, and have shaped and confirmed our common policy.
We express our determination that our nations shall work together in war and in the peace that will follow.
As to war-our military staffs have joined in our round table discussions, and we have concerted our plans for the destruction of the German forces. We have reached complete agreement as to the scope and timing of the operations to be undertaken from the east, west and south.
The common understanding which we have here reached guarantees that victory will be ours.
And as to peace-we are sure that our concord will win an enduring Peace. We recognize fully the supreme responsibility resting upon us and all the United Nations to make a peace which will command the goodwill of the overwhelming mass of the peoples of the world and banish the scourge and terror of war for many generations.
With our Diplomatic advisors we have surveyed the problems of the future. We shall seek the cooperation and active participation of all nations, large and small, whose peoples in heart and mind are dedicated, as are our own peoples, to the elimination of tyranny and slavery, oppression and intolerance. We will welcome them, as they may choose to come, into a world family of Democratic Nations.
No power on earth can prevent our destroying the German armies by land, their U Boats by sea, and their war planes from the air.
Our attack will be relentless and increasing.
Emerging from these cordial conferences we look with confidence to the day when all peoples of the world may live free lives, untouched by tyranny, and according to their varying desires and their own consciences.
We came here with hope and determination. We leave here, friends in fact, in spirit and in purpose.

ROOSEVELT, CHURCHILL and STALIN

Signed at Tehran, December 1, 1943 (Updated: Feb, 5, 2012)





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