The Iranian History 1928 AD

 


Bank Melli Officially Inaugurated

Sep, 11, 1928 AD

Bank Melli (National Bank) Iran 1946, the first national Iranian bank. The bank was established in 1927 by the order of the Majlis (the Iranian Parliament) and since then has consistently been one of the most influential Iranian banks.With the end of the World War I, the occupation forces which were a great obstacle in front of Iranian progress started leaving Iran and finally the parliament approved a bill that provided permission for founding a national bank on May, 5, 1927, and on Sep, 11, 1928 the first Iranian national bank named Bank Melli was officially open for business. The first managers of the bank were a group of Germans who were experts in the field. After the currency unit changed from Toman to Rial, on March, 13, 1932, the parliament gave the right to issue bank notes to Bank Melli. Before this, such rights belonged to Imperial Bank of Persia under British ownership. One week later on Norooz, the Iranians were touching their first paper money. In addition to the main branch, Two branches of Bank Melli opened in Tehran Bazaar and Bushehr in Khuzestan province.
On Feb, 23, 1950, the first Iranian private bank named Bank Bazargani was founded but later nationalized in 1979. In 1960 the Central Bank of Iran took over such duties as issuing bank notes from Bank Melli but high inflation after the 1979 revolution forced Bank Melli to continue issuing special bank notes called check-money. (Updated: Jan, 23, 2008)





Majlis Seventh Term Begins

Oct, 6, 1928 AD

An old car passing by the historical Majlis Parliament building Tehran BaharestanThe first assembly of the 7th Majlis took place on October, 6, 1928. One of the most important steps taken by the previous Majlis was the bill related to founding Iran's first national bank, with the aim of nationalization of the finance sector. The Imperial Bank of Persia which was owned by the British had been authorized to do all banking across Iran including issuing bank notes. Majlis thus gave Bank Melli of Iran the authorization to issue currency. However, implementation was not easy as the British protested. They were compensated with an amount of 200,000 Sterlings and were given the right to keep their bank and its branches across Iran.
Majlis also passed a bill that banned all kinds of slave trade within Iranian territory. Any such act would be punished and any slave that entered Iran would be automatically liberated. Little is know about circumstances of the time that made Majlis pass such a bill but the European practice that changed the course of history in many places including the whole African continent was drawing an ire worldwide. Slavery has always been seen as an inhumane practice throughout Persian history. Except the times when Iran came under foreign control; Arab, Macedonian, and Mongol invasion, slavery was seen as a sin.
Seventh Majlis was finally dissolved on Nov, 5, 1930. (Updated: May, 27, 2009)





Frenchman In Charge Of Cultural Heritage

Dec, 19, 1928 AD

Iran Baastan National Museum /Tehran. The oldest objects on display date back to prehistoric eras. There is a three dimensional map at the entrance of the first Building on which one can see all parts of historical Iran.Iranian Ministry of Culture appointed a French national named André Godard as the head of national museum for a period of 5 years, with a salary of 12,000 Tomans per year, by an agreement on December, 19, 1928. Godar was invited to Iran for archeological studies and organization of related affairs within the ministry. After the end of his term in 1933, he became the head of the Ancient Iran Museum. During 32 years of residence in Iran, Godar served in other related fields such as the faculty of fine arts in Tehran University while supervising affairs related to antiques and cultural heritage.
Despite limitations of the time, Andre Godar travelled to almost every historical site in Iran. With help from his wife, he took notes and made records with a great precision that have been used in academic studies to date.
He designed the Mausoleum of Saadi and Hafez in Shiraz, and Ferdowsi in Toos. He also made the master plan for Tehran University, Museum of Anthropology, and National Library. (Updated: Oct, 6, 2009)





Majlis Passes Dress Code

Dec, 27, 1928 AD

Iranian in their traditional Qajar costumes in a bakery(Sangaki) making traditional bread named Sangak which is baked on a bed of small stones.During a session on December, 12, 1928, Majlis approved a bill according to which all civil servants who did not have a uniform were obliged to wear a cap, pants and a shirt. Iranians thus had to give up their traditional long attires and wear European style clothes. Clerics were exempt from this rule.
There was a penalty of 1-5 Tomans for those who did not obey the law. This provision created a fund at municipality that made it possible to supply for those who could not possibly afford new clothes. The goal was to create some sense of unity among citizens while eliminating old style clothes that prevented people from performing their jobs.
The law however lacked some vision and did not succeed because:
- Iranians in different parts of Iran chose their clothes according to their climate and traditions which would not easily adopt to the rule.
- Long costumes represented Islamic way of thinking that practically covered body parts which was essential for women and was the sign of some sort of social respect for the elderly.
Nevertheless, Reza Shah who had Ataturk's model in mind did not give up and enforced the law to the extent that he became a hated figure among Shiite clerics and Islamic conservatives who naturally opposed modernization by force. (Updated: Oct, 6, 2009)





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