The Iranian History 1926 AD

 


Majlis Library Inaugurated

Jan, 30, 1926 AD

The old Majles (Parliament) Entrance with statues of 2 lions holding swordsTwo years after the victory of the Constitutional Monarchy Movement in 1910, a draft was presented to the parliament proposing foundation of the Majlis library. Yet, the Majlis library could only be officially inaugurated on Jan, 30, 1926. Until that date, books and literature from all around Iran were gathered in a small building. The Majlis library is one of the greatest libraries in Iran, also one of the worlds richest in terms of available manuscripts with over 17,000 handwritten books. It's also one of the most valuable resources for research on the Iranian history.
As of Sep, 2010 The Majlis Library in Tehran digitized about 30,000 manuscripts making them accessible online. These include Persian, Arabic and Turkish manuscripts. (Updated: Feb, 20, 2008)





First IIAF Pilot Flies From Paris To Tehran

Feb, 24, 1926 AD

Colonel Ahmad Nakhjavan earned the title to be the first IIAF pilot to fly a Breguet 19 airplane marked with Iranian flag and logo from Paris and arrive at Ghaleh Morghi Airbase of Tehran on Feb, 24, 1926.The Imperial Iranian Air Force (IIAF) was established by Reza Shah in 1920. IIAF became operational with its first fully trained pilots on February 25, 1925. But it was difficult for Iran to acquire airplanes. One of these trained pilots was Ahmad Nakhjevan who was sent to France. His mission was to bring a Breguet 19 airplane ordered by Iran. The Breguet 19 was a light bomber and reconnaissance plane, also used for long-distance flights, designed by the French Breguet company and produced from 1924. Colonel Nakhjevan took off from Paris on a plane marked with Iranian flag and logo and arrived at Ghaleh Morghi Airbase of Tehran on Feb, 24, 1926.
Colonel Ahmad Nakhjevan, who had an active role in the coup of 1921, was then appointed as the head of IIAF and served at this post for almost eleven years. He was then promoted to the rank of general and served as the vice Minister of War but he did not prove loyal to Reza Shah and in spite of Shah's will, he passed a bill at the ministry that dismissed regular conscripts replacing them with hired mercenaries on Aug, 30, 1941, thus obviously deserving allegations of being a spy and he was put to jail. The Allied Powers had invaded Iran on Aug, 25th and this was an act of treason.
On Sep, 16th Reza Shah was forced to abdicate and Mohammad Ali Foroughi was appointed Prime Minister. Nakhjevan was freed from prison on the same day and he became the Minister of War. He served under Mohammad Reza Shah for over 25 years until he died in 1966. (Updated: Sep, 7, 2012)





Iran-Turkey Sign Friendship Treaty

Apr, 22, 1926 AD

Iranian Embassy  Ankara 1944 :LIFEImperial government of Iran and Republic of Turkey signed a friendship and security treaty on April, 22, 1926. The treaty which was arranged in eleven sections, was signed by Mohammad Ali Foroughi and Turkish ambassador to Tehran. By this treaty, the two courtiers agreed :
- To prevent acts that would harm peace and friendship between two nations.
- To guarantee not to attack each other's territory.
- To stay neutral if the other country is attacked.
- To resolve possible disputes and conflicts through diplomatic channels or by referring to independent judges.
- To refrain from entering economic or military treaties that may threaten the other side.
- To prevent formation or settlement of parties or groups that threaten the other country.
- To protect each other's borders from acts that may harm the other side.
The two parties also agreed to form assemblies in Tehran, in less than six months after the agreement to discuss issues related to commercial and consular issues and make regulations to ease post, telegraph, and customs. Iran and Turkey also agreed on handling criminals.
The treaty was prepared in Persian and Turkish and French and it was indicated that in case of a dispute, the French copy would be valid. The significance of the Iran-Turkey peace treaty was ending centuries old animosity with the Ottoman Empire steered by foreign meddling. (Updated: Oct, 15, 2009)





Reza Khan Becomes Reza Shah

Apr, 25, 1926 AD

Reza Shah on the throne. Self crowned coronation ceremonyFour years after his coup d'état, Reza Shah proclaimed king and started the Pahlavi dynasty which lasted until 1979 as the last monarchy in the Iranian history. It's been registered in history that Reza Pahlavi was in favor of republic as the form of government and wanted to follow the path in Turkey. The idea had been opposed by conservative clerics who became influential in the political system during the Qajar dynasty.
After Mohammad Ali Shah's mysterious death in exile, the parliament declared the end of the Qajar dynasty in 1925. However, there was no authority but the Queen of Britain perhaps to crown Reza khan who used to be a Cossack officer a couple of years before becoming the new king. Therefore he crowned himself personally at the Gulistan palace. The former Cossack officer, born of middle-class landowners on the shores of the Caspian Sea, placed a specially-made crown of diamonds, emeralds and rubies on his own head.
He then appointed Abdolhossein Teimurtash as his royal court minister and Mohammad Ali Foroughi as the prime minister. His term began with reforms and infrastructure constructions specially with help from German experts. His relations with Nazi Germans were going to cost him his crown. During the WWII, Iran was occupied by Britain and Soviets in 1941. He was disposed and replaced by his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. (Updated: Sep, 29, 2008)





Majlis Sixth Term Begins

Jul, 10, 1926 AD

Reza Shah takes oath at the MajlisThe first assembly of the 6th Majlis took place on July, 10, 1926. The shameful capitulation rights were cancelled. These were a set of terms or articles constituting an agreement between Iran and foreign governments which gave their nationals immunity in front of the law. Russian and British citizens used capitulation privileges the most during the Qajar era. They could commit any crime without being punished. The following year, on May, 9, 1928, Iranians celebrated anniversary of this fortunate event.
The sixth Majlis had become very functional. Majlis passed legislations needed for a reforms in the judicial system and approved the bill to establish the first Iranian national bank. Iran was entering an age of modernization and infrastructural development was a key to success.
The sixth Majlis was dissolved on Aug, 13, 1928. (Updated: May, 27, 2009)





Sepahdar Tonekaboni Commits Suicide

Sep, 19, 1926 AD

First Qajar Interim Government Cabinet of ministers headed by Sepahdar Tonekaboni. There were two son-in-laws of Mozaffaroddin Shah: Farmanfarma and Sanioddoleh among themMohammad Vali Khan, known as Sepahdar Tonekaboni was born around 1848 and made a career as military officer in Naseroddin Shah's army. He was given the title Nasrossaltaneh after repelling nomadic Turcomans that destabilized Northeast of Iran and became the governor of Astarabad in 1884.
He became the head of Zarrabkhaneh for some time but was promptly dismissed. After that he was appointed as the minister in charge of treasury and customs until 1897 when he was appointed as the governor of Gilan. 4 Years later, he was appointed as the governor of Azerbaijan. He then served as the Minister of Post and Telegraph, head of the artillery, chief commander of Qazvin, Gilan and Mazandaran and then Tehran.
During Mohammad Ali Shah's reign, he was sent to Azerbaijan to suppress a revolt in the midst of Constitutional Monarchy Movement. He defected, and probably sided with the revolutionaries and went back to his motherland in Tonekabon and did not return Shah's call to return to Tehran.
Sepahdar Tonekaboni's decision was a turning point in his life and in the Iranian history. Mohammad Ali Shah called him ungrateful and dismissed him from all official duties and took back all his titles. Thereafter, he was welcomed by the revolutionaries in Rasht and because of his military experience, they chose him as the leader of the Revolution Committee. They took over Rasht after the death of the governor and swiftly conquered Qazvin while the Shah's forces, backed by Russian Cossacks blew terror all over Tabriz,
Gilan revolutionaries joined the Bakhtiari forces leaded by Sardar Asad and they conquered Tehran after five days of severe fight with Cossacks.
Because of his old age, Sepahdar Tonekaboni was appointed as the head of the Interim government and later became the first Prime Minister under the Constitutional Monarchy. He kept the same title for two more terms until Vosooghoddoleh took office.
It is known that before his death, most of his properties were confiscated because of his debts, but his suicide on Sep, 19, 1926 came as a surprise that left behind many speculations. His body now rests in Emamzadeh Saleh in Tajrish. (Updated: Apr, 14, 2010)





English-Persian Glossary
  • Minister of Post and Telegraph : وزير پست و تلگراف
  • Constitutional Monarchy : سلطنت مشروطه Media_Files
  • Abdolhossein Teimurtash : عبدالحسين تيمورتاش(AbdolhoseinTeymourtash)
  • Mohammad Ali Foroughi : محمد علي فروغي(Zoka-ol-Molk) محمدعلي فروغي ذكاءالملك Media_Files
  • Sepahdar Tonekaboni : سپهدار تنکابني محمدولي خان تنکابني Media_Files
  • Mohammad Reza Shah : محمدرضا شاه(Mohammadreza Shah) شاهنشاه،آريامهر،پهلوي Media_Files
  • Mohammad Ali Shah : محمد علي شاه(Mohammadali Shah Ghajar) Media_Files
  • Iranian Air Force : نيروي هوايي ايران(IAF,IRIAF,The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force) نيروي هوايي ارتش جمهوري اسلامي ايران،نهاجا Media_Files
  • Minister of War : وزير جنگ
  • Naseroddin Shah : ناصرالدين شاه(Nasseroddin Shah, Naseroldin Shah,Naser al-Din Shah Qajar) سلطان صاحبقران، شاه شهيد Media_Files
  • Ahmad Nakhjevan : احمد نخجوان(Col. Ahmad Khan Nakhjavan) تيمسار سرلشکر خلبان احمدخان نخجوان Media_Files
  • Pahlavi Dynasty : سلسله پهلوي
  • Ottoman Empire : امپراتوري عثماني دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّه? عُثمَانِيّه
  • Prime Minister : نخست وزير رئيس الوزرا Media_Files
  • Nasrossaltaneh : نصرالسلطنه
  • Vosooghoddoleh : وثوق الدوله(Hassan Vosough,Vothuq al-Dowleh) حسين وثوق Media_Files
  • Allied Powers : متفقين(Allies,Aliied Forces) Media_Files
  • Ghaleh Morghi : قلعه مرغي(Chicken Castle) Media_Files
  • Zarrabkhaneh : ضرابخانه
  • Iranian Flag : پرچم ايران Media_Files
  • Reza Pahlavi : رضا پهلوي (دوم) Media_Files
  • Caspian Sea : درياي کاسپين Media_Files
  • Sardar Asad : سردار اسعد عليقلي خان بختياري Media_Files
  • Breguet 19 : برژو 19
  • Mazandaran : مازندران(Tabarestan) طبرستان، تپورستان Media_Files
  • Teimurtash : تيمورتاش Media_Files
  • Azerbaijan : آذربايجان(Atropatene) Media_Files
  • Astarabad : استراباد(Astrabad) استرآباد
  • Reza Khan : رضاخان Media_Files
  • Bakhtiari : بختياري(Bakhtiyari) Media_Files
  • Nakhjevan : نخجوان(Nahchivan, Nahjevan, Nakhichevan) Media_Files
  • Tonekabon : نتکابن
  • Reza Shah : رضا شاه(Sardar Sepah, Reza Gholdor) رضا خان Media_Files
  • Gulistan : گلستان(Golestan) Media_Files
  • Monarchy : شهرياري سلط‌نت‌ مط‌لقه‌ ، رژيم‌ سلط‌نتي‌
  • Tajrish : تجريش Media_Files
  • Ottoman : عثماني(Osmani) Media_Files
  • Cossack : قزاق Media_Files
  • Iranian : ايراني‌ اهل‌ ايران‌ ، وابسته‌به‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Caspian : کاسپين(Caspian Sea, Mazandaran, Khazar Sea) بحر خزر، درياي مازندران Media_Files
  • Britain : بريتانيا انگليس Media_Files
  • Russian : روسي Media_Files
  • Breguet : برژو
  • British : انگليسي Media_Files
  • Pahlavi : پهلوي(Pahlevi) Media_Files
  • Tehran : تهران(Teheran, Tahran) طهران Media_Files
  • Tabriz : تبريز(Tebriz) Media_Files
  • Arabic : عربي تازي
  • Qazvin : قزوين(Ghazvin, Caspian) کاسپين Media_Files
  • French : فرانسوي Media_Files
  • Turkey : ترکيه Media_Files
  • France : فرانسه(République française) Media_Files
  • German : آلماني Media_Files
  • Majlis : مجلس(Majles) Media_Files
  • Qajar : قاجار(Ghajar) قجر Media_Files
  • Gilan : گيلان Media_Files
  • Rasht : رشت Media_Files
  • Paris : پاريس Media_Files
  • IIAF : نيروي هوايي شاهنشاهي ايران Imperial Iran Air Force Media_Files
  • Nazi : نازي Media_Files
  • Post : پست Media_Files
  • Khan : خان Media_Files
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files
  • WWII : جنگ جهاني دوم Media_Files
  • Shah : شاه پادشاه‌ Media_Files

Latest Additions to Iranian History Chronicle: