The Iranian History 1924 AD

 


Nakhjevan Declares Independence

Feb, 9, 1924 AD

An artist rendering of Babek Khorramdin depicts itself as a magnificient Statue in Nakhjevan. It's a nice work although the outfit resembles more like greek armor rather than what Iranian warriors used to wear.Nakhjevan declared its independence on this day, Feb, 9, 1924. After years of war, Nakhjevan was separated from Iran after a battle in 1818 and became part of Russia according to Turkmenchai Treaty in 1828.
In 1918, it was separated by Armenia from Azerbaijan. Being part of Transcaucasia, Nakhjevan was part of Persian Empire for a long time but after the fall of the empire it changed hands many times among Romans, Ottomans, Armenians and Russians.
Nakhjevan became part of the Median Empire in 6th century B.C. After integration of Median Empire to the Persian Empire, Nakhjevan became part of the Satrapy of Armenia under Achaemenid Persia around 521 BC
Nakhjevan became part of the Sassanid Empire in the 3d century and they installed border units in the area that also covered Albania and Eastern Caucasia. The area became the scene of many battles between Iran and Roman Empire and then Byzantium.
In the 16th century, the Safavid Empire took control of Nakhjevan again however, during the rise of the Ottoman Empire, Nakhjevan frequently suffered during the wars between Iranian and Ottomans.
On Feb, 9, 1924 Nakhjevan was founded as an independent republic. Located south of Caucasia and north of the Aras River, it has borders with Armenian Republic on East and North, and with Turkey on West. (Updated: Feb, 17, 2008)





Majlis Fifth Term Begins

Feb, 11, 1924 AD

1924 Workers seen during an oil well drilling operation (1304)The Persian legislative election of 1923 was held in November 1923 after the appointment of Reza Pahlavi as Prime Minister by Ahmad Shah Qajar. It was the last election in the Qajar Dynasty. Parliament opened on 11 February 1924.
The fifth Majlis was convened on Feb, 11, 1924. Majlis became the scene of some of hottest debates in its history as it was preparing to put an end to the notorious Qajar Dynasty. On Oct, 31, 1925, a draft was signed that dethroned Ahmad Shah, the last Qajar king and Reza Khan was appointed as the head of the state.
On Dec, 12, 1925 Reza Khan became Reza Shah, he was declared king and thus began the Pahlavi Dynasty. Public opinion was in favor of forming a republic at the time but Reza Shah's ambitions to become king and some religious fanatics changed the course of the Iranian history.
Fifth Majlis also succeeded in passing the following important bills including : exemption of agricultural and industrial machinery from customs and taxes in an attempt to instigate development, a general commercial law, and the bill of military conscription.
Reza Shah's coronation ceremony took place on Apr, 25, 1926. (Updated: May, 27, 2009)





North Petroleum Decree Approved

Jul, 8, 1924 AD

Pumping Station and Power Plant in the background parts of the Oil facilitiesIn 1924, the ministry of common wealth announced that all Qajar decrees related to mining should be registered and approved, otherwise they would be invalid. 23 decrees were presented of which only the one signed by Naseroddin Shah in 1880 was approved. This raised suspicion among people for there was an agreement made on Jan, 27, 1916 between prime minister Mohammad Valikhan Khalatbari aka Sepahsalar Azam and Akaky Mededievitch Khoshtaria, a suspicious Russian national who presented himself as an entrepreuner however he was working for the Russian bank of loans. This agreement gave him the right to exploration of petroleum in some provinces in northern Iran for 99 years. Khoshtaria also succeeded in obtaining same rights in Guilan and Mazandaran for 7 years. Because he was a foreign national, these agreements had to be ratified by the parliament, however the cabinet of Semsamossaltaneh voided the agreement.
After the 1917 Bolshevik revolution, the Soviets called all such treaties and agreements invalid. Khoshtaria argued that he was a citizen of Georgia and the Soviet decision did not interest him, thus he tried to find a client to sell his rights. Finally, the Anglo-Persian oil company bought the papers which included Naseroddin Shah's original decree for 100,000 Sterlings and agreed to grant some shares to him in case a company was formed based on it.
Based on the 1880 decree, a company was registered on Dec, 5, 1925 in which Russians held most of the shares. The British were displeased with the situation but chose to remain silent because they did not want to jeopardise their own infamous D'Arcy agreement. Somehow, none of the wells that were constructed in a hurry before parliament approval gave desired results and Russian engineers left the country soon after and left the wells behind. (Updated: Jan, 23, 2009)





Mob Murders U. S. Vice Consul In Tehran

Jul, 18, 1924 AD

The tomb of Robert Imbrie in Arlington Cemetry, TX, USAAt the Arlington cemetery in Texas, U.S.A. lies Robert Whitney Imbrie who became victim of a mob attack in Tehran. The unfortunate event created a scar in the face of the Iranian history. It was the time of a transition from Qajar to Pahlavi dynasty after the collapse of the republican movement in March.
The Bolshevik Russians waived from their disputed rights on northern Iran and Standard Oil had been granted the oil drilling rights in the area. But soon it was clear that Standard Oil was sharing the oil field with British Petroleum against Iran's will. These two companies had formed an alliance with the Dutch Royal Shell that was indeed a petroleum mafia before becoming a legitimate cartel. Soon after Standard Oil refused Iran's demand to share the income, Major Robert W. Imbrie, U. S. Vice Consul at Tehran also representing Sinclair started negotiations with Ghavamossaltaneh government to make a deal for Iran's northern oil fields. Sinclair accepted all conditions putting forward by Iran including a ten million dollar loan. However, behind the scenes, a conspiracy was forming.
On a Friday morning July, 24 Major Imbrie and Seymour, his companion, visited a place in Sheikh Hadi district; said to be a sacred well in order to take some photographs. Suddenly, their carriage was attacked by a mob crowd with sticks and stones shouting they were Bahais who had poisoned the well. The carriage conductor was killed and a soldier swiftly replaced him to reach Imbrie to a nearby hospital. Even after his unconscious body reached the police hospital, the mob forced its way into the operating room and continued to attack him. Imbrie had received more than forty wounds when he died. Court martial got busy and Private Morteza was found guilty of having incited the mob to kill Vice Consul Imbrie. The day preceding the execution of Private Morteza, the Persian Government handed the U. S. Charge d'Affaires at Tehran, a check for $60,000; the sum fixed by U.S. Government for payment by the Persian Government to Mrs. Imbrie as reparation for the loss sustained by the death of her husband. Sinclair left Iran for good and Iranian opposition entered a period of silence until 1951 when oil industry was nationalized.
On August 10, 1924, in a secret and strictly confidential report to the U.S. Secretary of State by the American Consular Service in Tehran, a detailed analysis of the murder and the British direct and indirect role in the misfortunate event had been verified.
73 years after the first revolution in 1906, Iran became the scene of general strikes, protests and public uprisings in 1979 that led to a change of regime but the mafia never left the state of Iran , as declared by the president of what is now called the Islamic Republic. Iran and the U.S. have no formal diplomatic relations. (Updated: Feb, 13, 2009)





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