The Iranian History 1923 AD

 


Mostofiolmamalek Becomes Prime Minister

Feb, 15, 1923 AD

Girl Students from a primary school in 1923Mostofiolmamalek began his fifth term serving as Prime Minister on Feb, 15, 1923. In his cabinet, the future Reza Shah was the Minister of War and the Iranian political scene was chaotic less than 2 years after the coup d'état of Feb, 21, 1921.
His term did not last more than 8 months and he submitted his resignation after one of his ministers, Foroughi was brought in front of the parliament for a formal question which was tabled by Modarres. Although his minister answered the questions convincingly, Mostofiolmamalek made his famous speech accusing some of parliament representatives of taking bribes. He was angry and disappointed by the accusations and openly called the parliamentarians corrupt instead of flattering or trying to convince them.
From Majlis, he went straight to Ahmad Shah and ignoring his full backing, he resigned. With this jest, he preserved his dignity and reputation. He was again Prime Minister for a sixth time under Reza Shah and formed his cabinet on June, 13, 1926.
He passed away from a heart attack on Aug, 28, 1932. (Updated: May, 30, 2011)





Sardar Sepah Becomes Prime Minister

Oct, 25, 1923 AD

Reza Khan seen in the Savadkoohi BrigadeAhmad Shah, the last Qajar king appointed Reza Pahlavi as the new Prime Minister and left for Europe eight days later. It's not clear what exactly happened between Reza Pahlavi and General Ironside in 1921 but the world power balance was changing and Reza Pahlavi took the power in his own hands. Ahmad Shah could never return home and died in Paris in 1930.
The country was in a chaos and needed serious reforms in all fields. Reza Khan proclaimed king in 1926 and called himself Reza Shah, the founder of Pahlavi Dynasty. He was a man of talent and courage and accomplished great projects that Iranians could not even dream of at that time. Centuries of imperialist meddling inside the corrupt Qajar court had left the country in the hands of tribal leaders that soon wanted their share of the power. The central government with a powerful army was soon formed and Reza Shah became Iran's new dictator. Although he succeeded in modernizing the country and accomplished projects such as railroad, banking, university, his greed for power stopped him short from moving the country towards democracy and in the end he had more enemies than friends, and his faith was not much different than Ahmad Shah and he died in exile in 1944. (Updated: Oct, 26, 2008)





Oil Deal Signed With Sinclair

Dec, 20, 1923 AD

A caravan transporting oil on horseback in deserts of IranThe Iranian government signed an agreement that gave exclusive rights to petroleum resources of 4 northern provinces to the American Sinclair company in return for a %10 share and ten million dollars loan. Prime minister Reza khan expressed his content with the deal in a celebration ceremony in Tehran as he saw the competition that started with the entrance of American companies in favor of Iranians, breaking economic and political monopoly imposed by Russia and UK for centuries. Moreover, financial resources were needed to modernize the country. Sinclair somehow had managed to make a similar deal with the Soviets in Baku although USSR had not yet been recognized by Americans. Thus, a second corridor to transfer the Iranian oil through the Black Sea rendered the British monopoly practically obsolete.
The British government and Standard Oil started an intensive campaign against Sinclair in US and Iran. Late in 1923, American media published the news that Sinclair was involved in a scandal bribing the US Navy authorities with $260,000 in return for control of oil reserves. Sinclair was sentenced and sent to jail. Consequently, the Soviets nullified the Sinclair agreement in Baku and the Morgan bank which was supposed to provide the loan set forth a strange condition. Iranians were asked to give the British equal share of the deal in order to receive the payment. At the same time, British supplied arms and money to Sheikh Khazal to stage an uprising in the Khuzestan province, an area in Iran which was under British control. Mob Murder of a high ranking American diplomat on July, 18, 1924 following an orchestrated propaganda against Americans in Iran gave the Americans strong signals that the British still held enough power to secure their interests in Iran. (Updated: Feb, 11, 2009)





English-Persian Glossary
  • Mostofiolmamalek : مستوفي الممالک
  • Minister of War : وزير جنگ
  • Pahlavi Dynasty : سلسله پهلوي
  • Prime Minister : نخست وزير رئيس الوزرا Media_Files
  • Sheikh Khazal : شيخ خزئل Media_Files
  • Reza Pahlavi : رضا پهلوي (دوم) Media_Files
  • Sardar Sepah : سردار سپه Media_Files
  • Standard Oil : استاندارد اويل
  • Ahmad Shah : احمد شاه(Ahmad Shah Qajar) احمد شاه قاجار Media_Files
  • Reza Khan : رضاخان Media_Files
  • Khuzestan : خوزستان(Khoozestan, Khuzistan,Susiana) Media_Files
  • Reza Shah : رضا شاه(Sardar Sepah, Reza Gholdor) رضا خان Media_Files
  • American : آمريكائي‌ ينگه‌ دنيائي‌ Media_Files
  • Sinclair : سينکلر
  • Modarres : مدرس Media_Files
  • Iranian : ايراني‌ اهل‌ ايران‌ ، وابسته‌به‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Dynasty : دودمان ال، خاندان پادشاهان، سلسله Media_Files
  • British : انگليسي Media_Files
  • Pahlavi : پهلوي(Pahlevi) Media_Files
  • Tehran : تهران(Teheran, Tahran) طهران Media_Files
  • Russia : روسيه Media_Files
  • Sheikh : شيخ(shaykh) Media_Files
  • Khazal : خزعل Media_Files
  • Murder : آدمکشي Media_Files
  • Majlis : مجلس(Majles) Media_Files
  • Qajar : قاجار(Ghajar) قجر Media_Files
  • Sepah : سپه Media_Files
  • Paris : پاريس Media_Files
  • Baku : باکو(Bad Koobeh,Bakukh,Bakuyah) باد-کوبه Media_Files
  • USSR : اتحاد جماهير شوروي(Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)) Media_Files
  • Khan : خان Media_Files
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files
  • Shah : شاه پادشاه‌ Media_Files
  • US : ايالات متحده Media_Files
  • UK : انگليس(United Kingdom,The Old Fox) Media_Files

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