The Iranian History 1920 AD

 


Red Revolution Committee Of Gilan Founded

Jun, 7, 1920 AD

Mirza Kouchak Khan Jangali, the leader of the Jungle Movement of Gilan near his Kasma headquarters.The Jungle movement was a rebellion against the Qajar rule as an extension of Constitutional Monarchy Revolution from 1914 to 1921.After the Bolshevik revolution in Oct, 1917 and collapse of Czar Empire, some Iranians expected a friendlier attitude from the newly founded U.S.S.R., at least by annulling the imposed Turkmenchai Treaty. However, the Bolsheviks dreamt of expanding their bloody empire under the red flag.
After bombing Anzali for several days, with the pretext of British presence supporting white Russian anti-revolutionaries, the Red Army used the unstable situation in Tehran and occupied Anzali. They founded the Red Revolution Committee of Gilan on June, 7, 1920 thinking that Tehran was too busy with internal struggles to respond.
However, Mirza Kouchak Khan organized his Interim Revolutionary government in Gilan and in a declaration, they prepared for war. Iran filed a complaint with the Nations League which did not bring any favorable outcome as the Soviets reserved the right to stay in Iranian soil as long as the British forces did so!
Finally, under pressure, on Dec, 14, 1921 Majlis approved a Treaty with Bolsheviks that endorsed Gulistan and Turkmenchai treaties, leaving the territory above the Aras River to the Soviets. In return, the Soviets accepted to leave occupied territories in northern Iran. The treaty which consisted of 26 items left the rights the roads inside Iran to Iran !
For some people, it is very hard to understand how Iranians acted so weakly against the enemy. The chaos that followed the despotic Qajar rule which stalled intellectual, industrial and military progress for many years explains a lot. Shortly after Iran was getting acquainted to parliamentary system and Constitutional Monarchy, the British backed Coup d'état Of Reza Khan in 1921 plunged the country into another period of dictatorship until 1953, just when Iranians were getting a taste of independence and democracy, a CIA/MI6 backed coup toppled the popular Mosaddegh regime. (Updated: Jul, 17, 2010)





Khiabani Uprising In Tabriz

Jul, 8, 1920 AD

Tabriz American Memorial School 42th term opening on Aug, 30,1923.Established in Tabriz in 1881 as a prominent school of its kind. the school was renamed Parvin High School after the World War II.In 1919, Iranian Prime Minister Vosooghoddoleh secretly signed a treaty with Britain that gave the colonist state exclusive rights over Iran’s transportation, military and financial institutions. When the deal with Britain was finally revealed, on top of similar concessions to Russians, waves of protest spread throughout Iran.
Sheikh Mohammad Khiabani was a revolutionary cleric who struggled for Constitutional Monarchy and opposed the treaty, charging that the government officials were bribed. He staged an uprising in Tabriz on . He quickly found support from people who took arms against the Vosooghoddoleh government. Einoddoleh who had been the governor of Tabriz since Sep, 1908, tried to soothe the rebels but the Khiabani did not agree to undergo another heinous agreement that would led to further colonization of the country.
On June, 24, 1920, Khiabani and his followers took over state offices in Tabriz. Einoddoleh and the Qajar royal family fled the city. Other cities in Azerbaijan joined the uprising one by one until the cabinet of Vosooghoddoleh was forced to resign. The next Prime Minister, Moshiroddoleh appointed Mokhberosaltaneh as the new governor of Tabriz who took off with Cossack forces to suppress the uprising. On Sep, 13, a battle took place between the two sides in which Sheikh Mohammad Khiabani was killed.
The government later claimed that Khiabani committed suicide after his forces came under siege, in order that he would not gain the title of a martyr. According to the state propaganda, Khiabani was a separatist leader who had already changed the name of Azerbaijan to Azadistan.
Nevertheless, in his last speech Khiabani asked for democracy for all of Iran asserting that in this path, the last step would be death which he’d embrace dearly instead of living in shame. (Updated: Jun, 25, 2010)





British Warning To Iran

Dec, 2, 1920 AD

Mosadegh's youth as governor of the Fars provinceThose were times when Britain was enjoying the advantages of being a superpower, bullying in Iran. On Dec, 2, 1920 the British representative gave a notice to the Iranian government to concede all affairs related to Kazak forces to the Great Britain. They wanted everything including management, logistics, weaponry supplies, and training to be handled by the British. The Iranian government was to pay all expenses including British personnel's salaries. In 1907 Britain and Russia had made an agreement that divided Iran into south and north regions. A military coup took place in Iran in the following February. (Updated: Dec, 9, 2008)





Armitage Settles Iran-Britain Disputes

Dec, 22, 1920 AD

A panaroma view of the Abadan Port seen from a tanker in the Persian GulfFirst disagreements between Iran and Britain arose during the World War I. In Feb, 1915, German and Turkish spies, with the help of some tribal bandits in Khuzestan province plotted bombs that cut oil the oil flow resulting in some damages to British interests. According to D'Arcy Agreement's item #14, the Iranian government was responsible to protect assets, employees, and interests of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company. As a matter of fact, Iranian government's sphere of influence could hardly reach borders of Tehran at that time. This gave Britain a pretext to stop due payments in the agreement for almost 5 years.
After the end of the war, disputes took place that did not result in a solution. Instead, there was show of force and dirty politics that was taking place.
On Dec, 2, 1920 the British representative gave a notice to the Iranian government to concede all affairs related to Cossack forces to the Great Britain. They wanted everything including management, logistics, weaponry supplies, and training to be handled by the British. The Iranian government was to pay all expenses including British personnel's salaries. In 1907 Britain and Russia had made an agreement that divided Iran into south and north regions. A military coup took place in Iran in the following February (Updated: Sep, 21, 2009)





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