The Iranian History 1915 AD

 


Rais Ali Delvari Assassinated

Sep, 3, 1915 AD

Iranian anti-colonial hero Rais Ali Delvari and his comrades, He was the leader of the Tangestan resistance fighters who relentlessly fought against the British occupation of Iran during the World War I.(Wikipedia) - In World War I, Iran was neutral. In reality, Persian forces were affected by the rivalry between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers and took sides based on the conditions. Western interest in Persia was based on its significant oil reserve and its strategic situation between Afghanistan and the warring Ottoman, Russian, and British Empires. Persia was divided into northern and southern spheres of influence under the Anglo-Russian Treaty of 1907. The treaty defined their respective spheres of influence in Iran and Afghanistan and provided a counterweight to German influence. This treaty was widely viewed by Iranians as having made the nation into nothing more than a British and Russian protectorate, so during the World War I, many local rebellions occurred in Iran against the British and Russian forces participating in war against Central powers of World War I. In Northern Iran, Jangal Movement of Gilan was the main operating local force against the British and Russians forces, and in Southern Iran, Ghashghayi, Tangestani and Larestani tribes were the main resisting powers against the British Empire. In both Southern and Northern movements, Persian Central Government Gendarmerie supported the rebels
During first years of WWI, Rais Ali Delvari and Wilhelm Wassmuss were organizing a general Anti-British uprising in Persia. On 12th July 1915, Rais Ali made a pact with Khaloo Hossein Dashti and leaded the Tangestani fighters that attacked the British residency in Bushehr but they were relapsed. A British delegate headed by Heydar Khan offered Rais Ali 40,000 Pounds for a truce which he rejected fiercely arguing that Iran's independence was not negotiable.
On 8 August 1915 the British forces occupied Bushehr with five hundred more Anglo-Indian cavalrymen and on 14 September removed Mokhberossaltaneh from Shiraz and installed Habibollah Qavamolmolk as acting governor of Fars Province. Between August and October 1915, Qavamolmolk received financial support from the British. But in late December the British protégé was expelled from Shiraz by pro-German officers of gendarmerie and the radical Democrat Party members who occupied the city and confiscated the British assets. Five days later British ships bombarded the headquarters of the Tangestani Tribes at Delvar. Despite the fact that Delvari fighters did not have a military training and lacked modern weapons, their small group started a guerilla war that stuck heavy blows to the occupation forces so that the British had to ask for help from Baghdad and India which had become British colonies already. Nevertheless, the British colonial forces whose numbers reached 5,000 failed in capturing the small Delvar Village hometown of Ali Rais Delvari, and they were left hopeless.
Finally, a traitor came to the British rescue; during a raid on occupation forces, Rais Ali Delvari was shot from his back by a traitor on Sep, 3, 1915 and fell martyr at a location called Tang Safar.
On 26 June 1916 an anti-British uprising broke out in Shiraz, but was put down the next day. The fragile British control over Fars was disrupted in May 1918 when Sowlatoddoleh, leading the Ghashghayi and other pro-German tribal forces from Kazerun, Dashtestan and Tangestan, embarked upon a war against the British. Eventually, Sowlatoddoleh uprising subsided due to the spread of influenza and British pressure. In late 1920 Mohammad Mosaddegh, the new governor-general of Fars reinstated Sowlatoddoleh to the office. The South Persia Rifles ended its activities following the British supported coup d’état of 1921, which was followed by the formation of a modern army in Persia and the eventual suppression of tribal fighters.
In Iran, September 3 is designated as day of combat against British colonialism. The day is devoted to sacrifices of Rais Ali Delvari, and is mentioned in official calendars. The Rais Ali Delvari Dam, is named after this person. (Updated: Oct, 18, 2012)





Moving The Capital To Isfahan: Shah Undecided

Nov, 15, 1915 AD

Last Qajar King Ahmad Shah. Ahmad Shah  was the last Qajar king who ascended the throne at the age of 13. Ahmad Shah Qajar ‎(Jan, 21, 1898 – Feb, 21 1930) was Shah of Iran (Persia) from Jul, 16, 1909, to Oct, 31, 1925.On Nov, 15, the ministry of foreign affairs informed all consulates that Iran has decided to move the capital to Isfahan because Russian armies were advancing towards Tehran. Germans, Austrians and Ottomans had already left Tehran at the same time with some representatives of the parliament that formed a national defense committee in Qom. But Ahmad Shah changed his mind just in time that he could form a resistance; thus giving the Allied Powers to take full control of the situation and manage the teenager king the way they wanted. The following day, the Russians had reached Karaj. On Nov, 17 Ahmad Shah accepts all offers on the table such as forming a cabinet of ministers just as the Allied Powers wished. In less than a year resistance leaded by the Iranian gendarmerie was crushed. (Updated: Jan, 20, 2008)





Colonel Pesyan Takes Back Hamedan

Nov, 21, 1915 AD

Colonel PesyanColonel Mohammad Taqi-Khan Pesyan (1892 - 3 October 1921) , born into an aristocratic family in Tabriz, was a popular military leader of Iran and became a national hero after his assassination. He is also famously known as being the first Iranian to successfully pilot an aircraft.
"If they kill me, my drops of blood will draw Iran's name, and if they burn me, my ashes will form motherland", are famous words from Colonel Pesyan. On Nov, 21, 1915 he rescued Hamedan from Russian occupation despite the fact that his army was not equipped with heavy artillary and were outnumbered by the Russian army. His strategy was called street fight which the enemy was not familiar with.
He staged an uprising against the government of Ghavamossaltaneh that was suppressed and he was killed. (Updated: Feb, 29, 2008)





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