The Iranian History 1909 AD

 


Yepram Khan Leads The Uprising

Feb, 13, 1909 AD

Persian Qajar Woman Pilgrim strapped to her mule she is jolted  closely veiled upon arrival at the shrine of Imam Reza in MashhadMohammad Ali Shah's shelling the parliament with cannons instigated people from all around Iran to join revolutionary forces. Yeprem khan, originally an Armenian was chosen the leader of these forces in Gilan. With the help of immigrant Caucasians they took control of Rasht and joined forces with other scattered armed groups calling themselves Mojahedin. He leaded this forces towards Tehran. A strong resistance in Qazvin led to a bloody encounter between the revolutionary and state forces. Near Tehran, they met other Mojahedin from Isfahan including Bakhtiar cavalry and abruptly captured the capital. Mohammad Ali Shah escaped and found refuge at the Russian embassy. The Shah was dismissed. Yeprem Khan later became the police chief of Tehran and served till the end of his life. (Updated: Feb, 15, 2008)





British Persian Petroleum Company Registered

Apr, 14, 1909 AD

Road and Railroad bridge built over the Rhada river near the oil fieldsA year after exploring rich oil reserves in Masjed-e-Soleyman in 1908, William Knox D'Arcy registered the British Persian petroleum company in London. Before D'Arcy, a French man named Julius Reuter had tried to gain the rights to Iranian oil reserves but he did not succeed. But D'Arcy somehow succeeded in bribing some influential people at the royal court including the prime minister and signed an agreement with the Shah in 1901 for a period of 60 months. Due to objections from Russians, 5 northern provinces bordering Russia were excluded.
Although oil was found, lack of funds forced D'Arcy to sell some of the shares of the company but he remained in the board of directors until 1917 when he died. At the brisk of the World War I, the British government owned %51 of the shares. The state share gradually went up to %97 until the nationalization of oil movement in Iran. The company later became British Petroleum and now is known as one of the biggest oil companies in the world. (Updated: Apr, 14, 2008)





American Teacher Killed In Tabriz

Apr, 19, 1909 AD

Howard Baskerville Bust TabrizHoward Baskerville was an American teacher in the Presbyterian mission school in Tabriz when he decided to join the Constitutional Revolution Movement and fought against the Qajar King Mohammad Ali Shah. In 1909 Russian Cossacks laid a siege on Tabriz trying to break the resistance. When he was asked by the American consulate not to get involved in the revolution, he sent back his passport with this historical quote -"The only difference between me and these people is my place of birth, and this is not a big difference."
On Apr,19, 1909, he led a contingent of 150 nationalist fighters into battle against the heavily armed Cossack forces. He was shot to the heart and was killed instantly in the battlefield. He is considered a martyr. A bust of Baskerville is located in the Tabriz Constitution House.
On April, 29, Russian forces captured Tabriz. Famous Movement leaders such as Sattar Khan and Bagher Khan sought refugee at the Turkish embassy on May, 17. Meanwhile, Mojahedin forces commanded by Sardar Asad and Samsamossaltaneh were forcing their way towards Tehran capturing Russian strongholds one by one. When Mohammad ali Shah fled to Russian embassy in Tehran on July, 1909, it was clear that the Constitutional Movement has achieved a great victory. (Updated: Aug, 6, 2009)





Regulations For Second Parliament Elections

Jul, 1, 1909 AD

Unrest in Tehran in front of the Majlis Parliament Tehran / SoldiersSecond election regulations also called 2 phase elections were approved according to which more civil participation was foreseen. All voters should own a property worth al least 250 Tomans, or their taxes paid be above 10 Tomans or they should have a yearly income of 50 Tomans or they should be educated. Moreover the number of representatives became 120 down from the original 156 and elections were held in 30 electoral regions. Voters minimum age dropped from 25 to 20 but still women could not vote. In phase one, people with highest votes were to gather and hold another election among themselves. (Updated: Jul, 25, 2010)





Shah Seeks Refuge At Russian Embassy

Jul, 16, 1909 AD

Qajar Mohammad Ali Shah wearing a feather hat, medallions and holding on to his sword. No matter how many royal photos he took, he was never accepted as king and became history as a Russian puppet.Mohammad Ali Shah had lost all local support. His last hope was the Russian military to suppress the Constitutional Monarchy Movement. After a long siege that led to famine, Russian forces captured Tabriz on April, 29, 1909. Meanwhile, Mojahedin forces advanced towards Tehran from Rasht and took Qazvin under control. Concurrently Bakhtiari tribal forces headed by Samsamossaltaneh and Sardar Asad succeeded in defeating Cossacks on their way to Tehran. Although Tabriz seemed to be contained, Mojahedin reached Tehran by July, 1909. Colonel Liakhoff also was defeated and he had to flee to Russia.
Mohammad Ali Shah sought refuge at the Russian embassy in Tehran on July, 16. From there, he fled to Russia. Russians sent more troops to Iran and captured Tabriz, Mashhad, Qazvin, Rasht and Anzali. In order to facilitate logistics, they quickly completed an extension from Caucasia railway to Jolfa. All Russian efforts to reinstall the Shah proved futile and Mohammad Ali Shah's son, who was only 13 years old ascended the throne. Azadolmolk, the Qajar tribal leader was appointed as regent until the young Ahmad Shah would reach legal age. (Updated: Jul, 23, 2009)





Ahmad Qajar Leaves Russian Embassy

Jul, 23, 1909 AD

Young Qajar king Ahmad Shah fully Decorated with a sword, medallions, and jewels in a uniform. This is a very good example of a development in photography in Iran. The light and contrast are perfect and every detail is well captured.At the peak of the Constitutional Monarchy Movement, Mojahedin reached Tehran by July, 1909 and defeated Cossack forces of Colonel Liakhoff. Mohammad Ali Shah sought refuge at the Russian embassy in Tehran on July, 16 and he was preparing to flee the country.
Finally, Qajar tribal leaders reached an agreement with the revolutionaries to recognize Mohammad Ali Shah’s son Ahmad as the new king. The young king was transferred from the Russian embassy in Gholhak to the Golestan Palace. At that time, he was just a kid and official affairs were given to his regent Azadolmolk.
Ahmad had to wait 5 more years to become Ahmad Shah. For his coronation ceremony on July, 22, 1914, an amount of 100,000 Tomans was borrowed from the Imperial Bank of Persia to cover the expenses.
Ahmad Shah married 4 times and had 3 daughters named; Irandokht, Homayoondokht, and Maryam. He also had a son named Fereydoun. (Updated: Jul, 23, 2010)





Majlis Second Term Begins

Nov, 15, 1909 AD

Representatives from Majles (Parliament) Second TermParliamentary elections were held for the second time in Persia in 1909. The Social Democratic Party won 48% of the seats, whilst the Democratic Party won 24%. The new Parliament convened on 19 November.
Azadolmolk, as regent to 13 year old Ahmad Shah formed a committee of 20 members in which following key figures: Farmanfarma as Minister of Justice, Mostofiolmamalek as Minister of Finance, Mohammad Valikhan Sepahdar as Minister of War, Sardar Asad as Minister of Interior Affairs, Naserolmolk Gharagozlu as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Sardar Mansour as Minister of Post and Telegraph. This new cabinet's main duty was to run the parliament elections.
The second Majlis convened after a period of 17 months with many difficulties, a two-stage election was carried out. Interventions by foreign forces and inexperience were major obstacles at the time. But Majlis resisted as much as possible and people moved the obstacles one by one.
From the beginning, representatives focused on unwanted presence of Russian forces in Iran. Despite all agreements, Russians were keeping garrisons in Qazvin and northern provinces. Russia was given several notes to pull out troops. But Russia's response was negative and they preferred to maintain an atmosphere of chaos and disorder to achieve their own agenda.
Although parliament members were those who once fought against the same dictatorship, political divisions soon began. Democrats with 28 members, and conservatives with 36 members were the two major wings. Finally, the 2nd Majlis was dissolved under foreign pressure on Dec, 24, 1911. The representatives were either forced to flee or sent into exile.
However important bills, including the new election law were passed during the second term. (Updated: May, 27, 2009)





13 Year Old Becomes Last Qajar King

Nov, 22, 1909 AD

Eleven year old Qajar Prince Ahmad Mirza Shah. Ahmad Shah succeeded his father Mohammad Ali Shah to the throne after he sought refugee at the Russian embassy on July, 16, 1909; to become the last Qajar ruler of Iran.After 5 months of political chaos, the high council of the constitutional monarchy stripped Mohammad Ali Shah off his powers as king due to his negligence towards constitution and seeking shelter at the Russian embassy, and then appointed 13 year old Ahmad Shah as the new king. Some evidences suggest that Ahmad Shah was only eleven years old when he was installed by the Majlis on the Qajar throne. The Grand Majlis consisted of 500 delegate members who came from different backgrounds.
Ahmad Shah was announced king on July, 16 1909, following the overthrow of his father and predecessor, Mohammad Ali Shah, who had attempted to reverse earlier constitutional restrictions on royal power, and thus enraged the majority of Iranians.
After Ahmad Shah's coronation, on August, 5, 1909 his father was sent to exile with a yearly salary of 100,000 Tomans.
The Majlis held a special tribunal in order to punish all those who participated in the civil war; the revolutionary court had ordered execution of some dissidents including Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri. They abolished class representation; created five new seats for the minorities in the Majlis; the Armenians got two seats, other religious minority groups such as Jews, Zoroastrians and Assyrians each got one seat in the new Parliament. (Updated: Nov, 22, 2007)





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