The Iranian History 1907 AD

 


Mohammad Ali Shah Crowned

Jan, 20, 1907 AD

Kiani Crown was used by Qajar kings. This crown was ordered by Fathali Shah. Stones used are emerald, ruby, diamond, and pearl.After Mozaffaroddin Shah passed away, his son Mohammad Ali Shah was crowned by Prime Minister Moshiroddoleh. Shah did not invite Majlis representatives to his coronation ceremony, thus showing his unwillingness to accept Constitutional Monarchy and cooperate with the parliament. After he guaranteed support from Russia, he killed, imprisoned and harassed the revolutionaries and left Moshiroddoleh no other choice but resignation.
Later, Resistance centers took shape in Tabriz and Gilan. With support from Bakhtiar and Dashnak tribes, revolutionaries took Tehran and Mohammad Ali Shah sought refuge at the Russian Embassy. Then he fled the country and his son Ahmad Shah was appointed by Majlis as the king and a monthly salary was assigned for the deposed Shah. But Mohammad Ali Shah gathered an army with Russian help and attacked the country. He was defeated and fled to Europe.
He died in Savona, Italy in 1925; his son Ahmad Shah was the last sovereign of the Qajar Dynasty. (Updated: May, 28, 2009)





Majlis Passes Municipality/City Council Law

Jun, 2, 1907 AD

Qajar Majlis First Term Representatives composed of merchants, clerics, and noblemen and trusted people in front of the Sepahsalar MosqueManagement of cities in Iran, in its modern form began after Constitutional Monarchy during the first year of Majlis. The law that allowed creation of City Councils actually permitted citizens to govern their own cities apart from complexities of the central government.
Before that, there were some institutions that worked under the sheriff, were regulated by the state and had two major tasks of cleaning and money collection.
The municipality law was codified in 5 chapters and under 108 headlines which took into consideration primary duties of municipalities such as paving streets, cleaning the city and passages, gathering and dumping garbage, and regulation of commercial activities such as supervision on merchants and shops. The City Council members were to be chosen by people. At that time, women could not vote. The council was to choose a president who acted like the assistant to the mayor. But municipalities could not stay independent for a long time. After the coup in 1921, the cabinet of Prime Minister Seyyed Ziaoddin Tabatabayi enforced a law that once again took city councils under state control. In the same year, the City Council building moved to Sepah Square. Thereafter, City Councils operated under supervision of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. From 75 representatives chosen by people, only 11 were admitted to the council by the ministry. The president was directly appointed by the state. In this manner, the coup leaders turned municipalities into their own executive power branch rather than public institutions.
After a century, Tehran has become a metropolitan with all problems of big cities such as traffic and pollution. This fact has forced the City Council to engage in more activities such as regulation of constructions, landscaping and green area, cultural activities, crisis management, etc. Municipalities have become an essential source of services to citizens from birth to death. It would have been great if Iran did not follow the fast track in west which has been proven a road to hell, and reach for think tanks to create Iranian models that can preserve ancient heritage alongside environment-friendly development. (Updated: Apr, 16, 2010)





Aminossoltan Assassinated

Aug, 30, 1907 AD

Tehran 1907 : Political prisoners during Constitutional Movement in Bagheshah (Shah's garden)Aminossoltan, who was the Prime Minister for 3 Qajar kings was killed. During Naseroddin Shah's autarchy, he was entitled Sahebjam, and during Mozaffaroddin Shah's reign he was given the title Aminossoltan.
When the Constitutional Monarchy movement broke out of control, Mohammad Ali Shah dismissed Moshiroddoleh and recalled Aminossoltan from Europe and appointed him Prime Minister. Mohammad Ali Shah gave him the title Atabak-e-Azam. Russian backed Mohammad Ali Shah refused to endorse the Constitution that limited his powers and started fighting against the supporters of the Constitutional Monarchy.
Civil unrest spread fast among major cities specially Tabriz when Mohammad Ali Shah's handwriting promised cooperation with revolutionary forces, however he was acting against the revolution.
On Aug, 30, 1907, Aminossoltan was shot to death by Abbas Agha Tabrizi. There's not much information on his assassin other than that he was possibly hired by Heydar Amoo Oghli, a Constitutional Movement leader. When he was surrounded, Abbas Agha Tabrizi shot himself and died on the scene. Aminossoltan's death removed one of the greatest obstacles against the movement.
Mohammad Ali Shah attended the parliament and was sworn in as the king loyal to constitution. But he hired a mob leaded by the famous cleric Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri and sabotaged the parliament representatives. A bomb exploded near Mohammad Ali Shah's coach and gave him pretext to send Russian forces headed by colonel Liakhoff to bomb the parliament. (Updated: May, 26, 2009)





Dividing Persia:Anglo-Russian Entente

Aug, 31, 1907 AD

The map of Anglo Russian Entente signed in 1907George Curzon masterminded the Anglo-Russian Entente. In a telegram on Feb, 3, 1900, he emphasized on British military presence in Iran and expressed anxiety over a Russian loan of 22.5 million Rubles that was given to Iran. Russians did not see any advantage in such a pact because they were already the most influential foreign power in Iran. But during the Constitutional Monarchy Movement, when Russian backed Qajar dynasty was living last days of its life, they changed their mind.
Anglo-Russian Entente was concluded on 31 August 1907 resolving the old rivalries in Persia, Tibet, and Afghanistan. With French mediation, Iran was divided into three zones: A Russian zone in north, a British zone in south and a narrow buffer zone in between. This shameful pact thus divided the region into spheres of influence of colonial powers. Russia recognized Afghanistan which was indeed a part of Iran as a protectorate of Britain. Tibet was given to China.
This accord had 5 articles concerning Persia which was signed without the participation or knowledge of the Persian government. Iran was officially informed of the Accord later, on September 16, 1907. Mohammad Ali Shah was Russia's puppet ruler in Iran and Iranians were struggling for Constitutional Monarchy at the time and the new born parliament overwhelmingly rejected this accord.
The Emir of Afghanistan refused to acknowledge the agreement and the Tibetans never acknowledged China's feudal control over their country. The Anglo-Russian Entente along with the Entente Cordiale (1904) and the Franco-Russian Alliance (1892) formed the Triple Entente between the UK, France and Russia. A century later, the situation in Russia after the collapse of the USSR is a great lesson of a bear sawing the seeds of a fox. (Updated: Sep, 1, 2008)





English-Persian Glossary
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs : وزارت امور داخله وزارت کشور
  • Seyyed Ziaoddin Tabatabayi : سيّد ضياءالدّين طباطبايي(Seyd Zia Tabatabayi) Media_Files
  • Constitutional Monarchy : سلطنت مشروطه Media_Files
  • Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri : شيخ فضل الله نوري Media_Files
  • Abbas Agha Tabrizi : عباس آقا تبريزي
  • Mozaffaroddin Shah : مظفرالدين‌شاه Media_Files
  • Mohammad Ali Shah : محمد علي شاه(Mohammadali Shah Ghajar) Media_Files
  • Naseroddin Shah : ناصرالدين شاه(Nasseroddin Shah, Naseroldin Shah,Naser al-Din Shah Qajar) سلطان صاحبقران، شاه شهيد Media_Files
  • Prime Minister : نخست وزير رئيس الوزرا Media_Files
  • George Curzon : لرد کرزن(Lord Curzon) Media_Files
  • Moshiroddoleh : مشيرالدوله(Moshirossaltaneh) ميرزا نصرالله خان نائيني، مشيرالسلطنه Media_Files
  • Constitution : قانون اساسي Media_Files
  • Aminossoltan : امين السلطان صاحب‌جمع، اتابک اعظم Media_Files
  • Afghanistan : افغانستان Media_Files
  • Amoo Oghli : عمو اوغلي
  • Ahmad Shah : احمد شاه(Ahmad Shah Qajar) احمد شاه قاجار Media_Files
  • Liakhoff : لياخوف(Polkovnik Vladimir Platonovitch Liakhov) پالکونيک(سرهنگ) ولاديمير پلاتونويچ لياخوف
  • Monarchy : شهرياري سلط‌نت‌ مط‌لقه‌ ، رژيم‌ سلط‌نتي‌
  • Sahebjam : صاحب جمع
  • Bakhtiar : بختيار(Bakhtiyar)
  • Entente : موافقت Media_Files
  • Iranian : ايراني‌ اهل‌ ايران‌ ، وابسته‌به‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Dynasty : دودمان ال، خاندان پادشاهان، سلسله Media_Files
  • Dashnak : داشناک
  • Britain : بريتانيا انگليس Media_Files
  • Russian : روسي Media_Files
  • British : انگليسي Media_Files
  • Persia : ايران Media_Files
  • Tehran : تهران(Teheran, Tahran) طهران Media_Files
  • Russia : روسيه Media_Files
  • Tabriz : تبريز(Tebriz) Media_Files
  • Sheikh : شيخ(shaykh) Media_Files
  • French : فرانسوي Media_Files
  • Seyyed : سيّد(Seyed) سيد
  • Atabak : اتابک Media_Files
  • Savona : ساونا
  • France : فرانسه(République française) Media_Files
  • Majlis : مجلس(Majles) Media_Files
  • Qajar : قاجار(Ghajar) قجر Media_Files
  • Gilan : گيلان Media_Files
  • China : چين Media_Files
  • Italy : ايتاليا Media_Files
  • Sepah : سپه Media_Files
  • Tibet : تبت
  • USSR : اتحاد جماهير شوروي(Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)) Media_Files
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files
  • Shah : شاه پادشاه‌ Media_Files
  • UK : انگليس(United Kingdom,The Old Fox) Media_Files

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