The Iranian History 1906 AD

 


Constitutional Monarchy Approved

Jul, 27, 1906 AD

Mozaffaroddin Shah Qajar HorsebackIt's a matter of debate which event really instigated the Constitutional Monarchy Movement but incapability and incompetence of Qajar kings was leading to disintegration of the country. The industrial and intellectual revolutions in Europe became a model for most Iranians who suffered centuries of oppression under Qajar tyrants supported by foreign states and zealots.
Meanwhile three incidents namely; construction of a Russian bank on a graveyard, photograph of a Belgian dancing in a cleric's outfit, and beating of merchants for rising prices of sugar triggered public discontent and some religious leaders joined the public in asking resignation of Prime Minister Einoddoleh.
Mozaffaroddin Shah was sick and was living last days of his life when he signed a decree that dismissed Einoddoleh, and called for parliament elections on July, 27 1906. This decree marked the beginning of Constitutional Monarchy in Iran.
The first Majlis assembly took place at the Golestan Palace but the next meetings convened at the historical building in Baharestan Square. A sign meaning Justice of Mozaffar was placed on the entrance which somehow disappeared with the statues of two lions guarding it after the 1979 revolution.
Iranians first practiced democracy during the Parthian Empire and had a parliament called Mehestan which had the power to appoint the Crown Prince and Vezir.
Mozaffaroddin Shah's son and successor, Mohammad Ali Shah was the first person to swear in Majlis to protect the constitution. He was the first to welsh his word. He was a Russian puppet and an upholder of autocracy that wanted to retain the throne by force of a Cossack brigade under Russian Liakhoff.
During the next ten years Russians acted as if Iran was one of their provinces; they occupied Gilan, Khorasan, and Azerbaijan. Russian consulates became governing bodies and they sometimes collected taxes.
Historical facts show that Russia and Britain caused most damages to Iran starting in 18th century; however Americans took the lead in the middle of the 20th century. (Updated: Sep, 4, 2008)





Moshiroddoleh Appointed Vezir

Aug, 1, 1906 AD

Naseroddin Shah Funeral CeremonyMoshiroddoleh was given the role of mediator during the Constitutional Monarchy Movement. When Einoddoleh was dismissed from duty on July, 29 by Mozaffaroddin Shah, he was the best candidate agreed upon to become the new Prime Minister. Moshiroddoleh also succeeded in terminating a refuge by the revolutionaries at the British Embassy. He freed political prisoners and asked the clerics who had fled to Tabriz to return to Tehran.
On Oct, 7, he formed Iran's first legitimate government approved by Majlis. After Mozaffaroddin Shah's death, he was the person who crowned Mohammad Ali Shah on Jan, 20, 1907. However, he was incapable of resisting the new king's dictatorship and submitted his resignation on March, 17.
Moshiroddoleh's sudden death on Sep, 14, 1907, only two days after Atabak's death raised suspicions at the time. He was a powerful candidate to become Prime Minister. (Updated: May, 28, 2009)





First Iranian Parliament Is Born

Aug, 17, 1906 AD

Tehran Mozaffaroddin Shah Qajar signs Constitutional Monarchy decree 1906By a decree from Mozaffaroddin Shah Qajar, an interim parliament is convened in Tehran to prepare the regulations of parliament elections, hence the first election law was approved on Sep, 9 and the first Iranian parliament was inaugurated on Oct, 7 same year. Mozaffaroddin Shah signed the decree of Constitutional Monarchy on Aug, 5, 1906, thus marking the victory of the movement.
According to the law, the number of representatives was 156 and their term was limited to two years. With a quota of 60 representatives from Tehran and 96 from other cities, first elections were not completely based on general public vote and the first Majlis was rather elected by elites and unions. Some other highlights are : Minimum age requirement for voters was 25, and landlords should present proof of ownership of a property of at least 1000 Tomans of value, while women could not vote.
Two statues of lions were installed at the gate of the parliament. Lion, the sword and the sun, each represent the king, people, and Iran. These statues were removed and broken into pieces after the regime change of 1979 when commonsense was somehow lost. 30 years later, on Aug, 7, 2008 the lions were installed back again silently. The statues were repaired and the sun, missing! The following Tuesday the lions disappeared again! (Updated: Jan, 23, 2009)





Majlis First Term Begins

Oct, 7, 1906 AD

Qajar Majlis (Parliament ) first term RepresentativesThe first Iranian legislative election held on July 1906 after Iranian Constitutional Revolution by a Farman from Mozaffaroddin Shah Qajar.It was the first Iranian election in the history.In 7 October 1906, Parliament was opened in the Golestan palace.
The first term began on Oct, 7 at Golestan Palace attended by Mozaffaroddin Shah who had signed the Constitutional Monarchy bill and paved the way for creation of Majlis. Next meetings took place at Mirza Hossein Sepahsalar's house in Baharestan Sq. Until the 1979 revolution, most 24 terms of Majlis assemblies convened at the same place. The first constitution was signed by Mozaffaroddin Shah on Dec, 30, 1906 but the law lacked essential points regarding people's rights. The primary constitution did not explain limits of the state authority. Therefore complimentary laws were prepared. The authority to change the constitution remained at the power of Majlis Moassesan or the parliament of founders. Mohammad Ali Shah first refused to sign the law and started campaigning against the Constitutional Movement but he was forced to sign the law on Oct, 7, 1907.
Majlis Moassesan convened 2 more times : once expanding Shah's authority to dissolve the Majlis and the second time to declare Farah Diba as the queen and his son as the crown prince.
The Majlis or the national parliament survived for 24 terms. It was replaced with the Islamic parliament after 1979 but still the term Majlis is used.
Majlis 1st term was dissoved on June, 23, 1908. (Updated: Sep, 22, 2009)





Sanioddoleh Heads The Majlis

Oct, 8, 1906 AD

Qajar Mokhberoddoleh: Aligholi Khan Mokhberoddoleh, one of important political figures (Vezir) during Naseroddin Shah and Mozaffaroddin Shah's reign.In the second session of the first Majlis term, Sanioddoleh was elected head of the parliament while Vosooghoddoleh was appointed as his deputy.
Morteza Gholi Khan Sanioddoleh (c. 1857-1911) was the son of Ali Gholi Khan Mokhberoddoleh and grandson of Reza Gholi Khan Hedayat. Sanioddoleh was a Qajar politician and entrepreneur. He was graduated as Industrial engineer in Germany. He opened the first textile factory in Iran. Due to Britain’s monopoly on many industries including textile, his attempt failed and so did his project of Iron furnaces. He then tried to restart Aminoddoleh’s ailing safety matches and sugar factories.
After another failure, he entered mining business in Pasghaleh area. When he brought machinery and technicians from Germany, Constitutional Monarchy took place. Reformist Qajar era politicians such as Naserolmolk, Motamenolmolk, Mohsirolmolk and Mokhberossaltaneh urged him to accept being the head of Majlis.
The first Majlis was not chosen by public vote and well-known people chose representatives from among themselves. This way, the parliament had more an air of a teahouse as some deputies brought along their servants. They used to sit on the flower and chat with each other while drinking tea and smoking Hooka. There were also many visitors sometimes submitting complaints as this Majlis was also called the House of Justice of Mozaffaroddin Shah.
Sanioddoleh as a technical person decided to abandon his Majlis duty to Ehteshamossaltaneh and pursue his long time dream; the railroad. But on a Wednesday, on Oct, 8, 1911 he was shot dead by a Russian from Georgian origin named Ivan at Mohkberoddoleh Intersection. (Updated: Jul, 15, 2010)





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