The Iranian History 1857 AD

 


British Forces Capture Bushehr

Jan, 23, 1857 AD

Qajar Naseroddin Shah in Britain sitting between Princessed of Wales and Russia at a concert in Robert Hall. Shah's European trips to indulge his lust cost the nation alot as he ran out of money and gave away concessions to borrow money.After several days of heroic resistance, British forces seized the Bushehr seaport which was strategically important. The city and its surroundings had been bombed for 23 days. The war had broken out after Iranians occupied the city of Herat, a key city to Afghanistan and reclaimed it on Oct, 25, 1956. The city was a part of Iran as far as the history goes. Even Afghanistan is a name given by the British colonists to Ariana. Herat was the birthplace of Shah Abbas of Safavi dynasty.
Iranians had made similar attempts to regain Herat in 1838 and 1852 also. But Naseroddin Shah was too busy in the royal harem and did not take necessary measures to modernize the country, specially the army. Therefore, with French mediation Iran signed a peace treaty in Paris waiving Iran's rights to Herat on March, 4, 1857.
After the Indian rebellion of 1857, successive British governments saw Afghanistan as a buffer state. The Russians continued to advance southward through Central Asia towards Afghanistan, and by 1865 Tashkent had been formally annexed.
Samarkand became part of the Russian Empire in 1868, and the independence of Bukhara was virtually stripped away in a peace treaty the same year. Russian control now extended as far as the northern bank of the Jeyhoon River.
Greater Iran was being divided by two imperialist states of Russia and Britain in a sophisticated scenario called the Great Game. The Grand Vezir at the court of Naseroddin Shah at the time was Mirza Aghakhan Nouri, a British spy who was later dismissed but it was too late! (Updated: Dec, 9, 2008)





Iran Surrenders Afghanistan To Britain

Mar, 4, 1857 AD

First bus in IranFollowing the British occupation of Bushehr, Iran was forced to sign a treaty not less disturbing than the Turkmenchai agreement. Iran thus surrendered to Britain all claims to Herat and territories in present-day Afghanistan. Mediated by Napoleon 3, the treaty signed in Paris was later exchanged in Baghdad.
Britain also came to dominate Iran's trade and interfered in Iran's internal affairs alongside Russia. Enjoying military and technological superiority, they took advantage of Qajar weaknesses. In article 7 of this treaty that consisted of 15 articles, Iran was given the right to send troops to Afghanistan in case of a threat. This mainly was foreseen to give Britain enough time to deploy troops from India in case of an attack from Russia. With this treaty, Iran also accepted to pardon mutiny for those who cooperated with British during the occupation. (Updated: Dec, 9, 2008)





Germany–Iran First Diplomatic Contact

Jun, 25, 1857 AD

The Qajar embassy to France Ferouk Khan on the pages of Illustrated London news in 1857. His negotiations led to the March 1857 Treaty of Paris, which put an end to the Anglo-Persian War  (1856-1857) after which Afghanistan was separated from Iran.(Wikipedia) - Even before diplomatic ties, unofficial relations had already taken root between the two nations. Goethe's dedication of his West-?stlicher Divan (West-East Divan) to Hafez in 1819 is an illustration of how far back such cultural ties went.
However, the first recorded diplomatic contact between Iran and Germany was made in 1857. On the June, 25th of the same year, representatives from the two sides signed a Friendship and Trade agreement in Paris. Count Karl Franz Von Hatzfeld Wildenburg represented Germany while Farrokh Khan Aminolmolk who acted as the Persian ambassador to the Emperor of the French, Napoleon 3rd and Queen Victoria signed the agreement on behalf of Iran.
The Persian embassy was composed of the ambassador himself, accompanied by a suite of more than twenty persons, including councilors, interpreters, secretaries and writers. Six horses were given as present to the French Emperor, who expressed his regret about the ongoing conflict between Persia and the Great Britain, known as the Anglo-Persian War (1856-1857). Negotiations led to the March 1857 Treaty of Paris, which put an end to the Anglo-Persian War.
After his embassy, Ferouk Khan returned to Persia, where he became Prime Minister.
In 1860 a German delegation headed by Baron Julius Minutolik Freiherr was hosted at the court of Naseroddin Shah in Tehran for three months. Unfortunately, Baron Minutolik as Prussian Minister-resident and consul general to Persia passed away on November, 5 1860 at a Caravansaray near Shiraz , probably of cholera.
Naseroddin Shah visited Berlin in 1873 and expressed his willingness to expand ties with Germany mainly because Germans were not involved in the Great Game and Iranians saw them as a factor to counter-balance the British and Russian hegemony that was tearing the country apart. Following this trip a treaty was signed in Berlin between Prince Bismarck and Mirza Hossein Khan. (Updated: Mar, 7, 2013)





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