The Iranian History 1856 AD

 


Britain Declares War On Iran

Nov, 1, 1856 AD

Crown Prince Abbas Mirza QajarAbbas Mirza's death on his way to Kandahar in 1834, created a power vacuum in Ariana, eastern Iran. The British used this situation to create a shield between Iran and India and sent Alexander Burnes disguised as a merchant to Kabul. He succeeded in toppling Dost Mohammad Khan and replacing him with Shojaolmolk. But in 1839 when they deployed 5000 soldiers to Ariana, Afghans revolted and killed all of them including Burnes and Shojaolmolk.
In 1841 16,500 more British troops were deployed but they were defeated and on the way back were all killed in Jalalabad. Dost Mohammad Khan returned to power and fought with the British forces until a treaty was signed in Peshawar on March, 30, 1855, bringing Herat under British guardianship. That led to Iran's deployment of troops and taking Herat back on Oct, 25. The British, unhappy with the situation and knowing that Iran was run by a weak ruler declared war on Iran on Nov, 1, 1856. This war ended after 4 days with Iranian defeat followed by the infamous Paris treaty 17 months later. Iran ultimately agreed to surrender its claims to Herat.
In the context of the Great Game, the British wished for Afghanistan to remain as a buffer against Russian expansion towards India. During the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901), an aggressive expansionist policy was observed by Britain. (Updated: Sep, 29, 2008)





Anglo-Persian Wars : Bushehr Resistance

Dec, 9, 1856 AD

Persian War Map 1856After Iran claimed Herat, the British declared war on Iran on Nov,1, 1956 starting a war that lasted for 17 months. Instead of sending troops to Herat, the British naval forces advanced to the Persian Gulf and taking advantage of their superiority in sea bombed the Bushehr city for several days. They landed on Bushehr shores on Dec, 9th. British forces mostly consisting of Indians soldiers advanced inland towards Borazjan looting stores and homes. On Feb, 7, 1857 Persian army met them at Khooshab but they were defeated. Then the city of Ahvaz fell to the British on Apr, 1, 1957 when it was learnt that peace had been made in Paris on March 4th in which Persians agreed to withdraw from Herat, apologize to the British, and give the British commercial concessions which became the basis further exploitation of Iran throughout 20th century.
Bushehr city is situated 8 kilometers north of the ancient city of Elam also called Mesambria by the Greek. In 1506 the Portuguese had invaded the city but had been forced out by Shah Abbas forces.
Today, Bushehr is famous for it's historical nuclear power plant still being built after 30 years. (Updated: Jan, 23, 2008)





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