The Iranian History 1795 AD


Agha Mohammad Khan Becomes King

Mar, 21, 1795 AD

Qajar Infantry 2500 Years CelebrationsThe coronation ceremony of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, from a Mongol descent took place in Tehran. After defeating Ghafour Khan, the Zand governor, he proclaimed king in a tent on the Norooz of 1795.Tehran thus became the capital of Iran after on. Tehran's population was only 20,000 at the time but it was suitable for Agha Mohammad Khan's strategic needs.
Agha Mohammad Khan was castrated at the age of six. Despite being a eunuch he became tribal chief. After the death of Karimkhan Zand the country plunged into disorder and Agha Mohammad Khan used the opportunity to seize power and establish Qajar dynasty.
Agha Mohammad Khan was assassinated in 1797 in Shusha near Tbilisi. Agha Mohammad Khan is mostly remembered for his cruelty and his capacity as a warrior that managed to re-unite Persia. (Updated: Mar, 1, 2008)

Persia Takes Back Georgia

Sep, 11, 1795 AD

Qajar era Persian Darvish in a marketplace in Georgia. Darvish is a Muslim member of a Sufi fraternity, sometimes wandering around barefoot with no wealth.The expansionist Russian Empire abused the power vacuum created with the death of Nader Shah in 1747 and following power struggles in Iran to install its own puppet king Heraclius in Georgia. A Russian contingent of two infantry battalions with four artillery pieces arrived in Tbilisi in 1784, but was forced to withdraw due to public resistance.
Meanwhile, Iran was consumed in a power struggle between the Zand Dynasty and the emerging Qajar tribal leader Agha Mohammad Khan who came up victorious and proclaimed Shah of Iran. Shortly after his coronation ceremony in a tent on the Norooz of 1795, Agha Mohammad Khan resolved to bring back Caucasia into Persian orbit. In August, 1795 Agha Mohammad Khan led his 35,000-strong army into the Caucasus and secured alliance from khans of Ganjeh and Erivan. He then marched directly on Tbilisi, and attacked the heavily fortified Georgian positions.
Abandoned by Russians who did not take such risks as engaging a strong army, Heraclius started a desperate resistance and succeeded in rolling back a series of Persian attacks on September 9 and 10. Early on September 11, Agha Mohammad Khan personally led an all-out offensive against the Georgians. Amid an artillery duel and a fierce cavalry charge, the Persians managed to cross the Kura River and outflanked the decimating Georgian army. A few hours after Heraclius escaped to the mountains, Agha Mohammad Khan was in full control of the Georgian capital. He sacked Tbilisi and massacred the population. After installing a governor, the Persian army marched back victorious with booty and young female captives.
To restore Russian prestige, Catherine II declared war on Persia and sent an army under Valerian Zubov in the Qajar possessions, but her successor Paul I shortly recalled it. Agha Mohammad Shah was assassinated in Shusha during another expedition of Caucasia in 1797.
In 1813, under Fathali Shah, Iran abandoned all claims to Caucasia by the infamous Gulistan Treaty.
On April 9, 1991, shortly before the collapse of the USSR, Georgia declared independence. (Updated: Sep, 15, 2011)

English-Persian Glossary
  • Mohammad Shah : محمد شاه Media_Files
  • Fathali Shah : فتحفلي شاه(Baba Khan) بابا خان Media_Files
  • Zand Dynasty : سلسله زنديه(Zandian Dynasty) زنديان Media_Files
  • Nader Shah : نادر شاه(Naderkuli, Nadergholi) نادرقلي افشار Media_Files
  • Heraclius : هراکليوس Media_Files
  • Karimkhan : کريمخان Media_Files
  • Gulistan : گلستان(Golestan) Media_Files
  • Caucasia : قفقاز(Kafkas,Kafkasia)
  • Caucasus : قفقاز
  • Valerian : والريان Media_Files
  • Tbilisi : تبليس(Tiflis,Teflis) تفليس
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Dynasty : دودمان ال، خاندان پادشاهان، سلسله Media_Files
  • Georgia : گرجستان Media_Files
  • Russian : روسي Media_Files
  • Persia : ايران Media_Files
  • Tehran : تهران(Teheran, Tahran) طهران Media_Files
  • Norooz : نوروز(Nowrooz,Noruz,Nevruz,Nawruz) Media_Files
  • Erivan : اريوان(Yerevan,Iravan) Media_Files
  • Shusha : شوشا(Shoosha,Shushi)
  • Mongol : مغول Media_Files
  • Ganjeh : گنجه(Ganja) Media_Files
  • Qajar : قاجار(Ghajar) قجر Media_Files
  • USSR : اتحاد جماهير شوروي(Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)) Media_Files
  • Khan : خان Media_Files
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files
  • Shah : شاه پادشاه‌ Media_Files
  • Zand : زند Media_Files

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