The Iranian History 1739 AD


Victory For Nader Shah At Karnal

Feb, 13, 1739 AD

Founder of Afsharid dynasty Nader Shah (center) is amalgamated with some of the later Mughals; a steel engraving from the 1790's, with modern hand coloring. Nader's conquest of India began when Mughul Emperor for nurturing Hotaki fugitives.Pursuing the Afghan invaders, in 1738, Nader Shah conquered Kandahar, the last outpost of the Hotaki dynasty. His thoughts now turned to the Mughal Empire of India for nurturing Hotaki fugitives.
Nader Shah's conquest of India began with the Battle of Karnal which was a decisive victory for the Iranian army. Nader Shah defeated the army of Mohammad Shah on Feb, 13, 1739. The Mughal emperor lost the battle in little more than three hours thus paving the way for the Persians to conquer Delhi. The battle took place at Karnal, 110 kilometers north of Delhi, India.
The Mughals main advantage was their war elephants therefore Nader Khan used fire and sharp-shooters to blind the elephants which fled causing mayhem in their own camp.
The size of the Indian army was twice that of Nader Shah's but Nader was a genius in war tactics. Thus, Mughal forces began to disintegrate as they proved incapable of responding to Persian attacks on their lines.
After their general Saadat Khan was taken captive, Mughals started to loot their own camp while the Persian cavalry was inflicting great damages on loyal soldiers until the Mughal Emperor was captured by the Persians.
Delhi surrendered and Nader Shah entered the city on Norooz day on March, 21, 1739. Nader spared the life of Mohammad Shah and the civilians although he was ruthless on remaining Hotaki bandits. His soldiers brought back some of treasures that was plundered during the Hotaki invasion including the Peacock Throne, jewels, and precious Persian artworks such as Miremad calligraphy.
Nader Shah restore Mohammad Shah to his throne and left India soon after. (Updated: May, 21, 2011)

Nader Shah Enters Delhi

Mar, 20, 1739 AD

Nader Shah Afshar TentMohammad Gurkani gave battle to Nader with an army of 360,000 in a field 120 km from Delhi. However, an army of soft Indians were little able to oppose the hardy Iranian troops trained to arms by the most excellent discipline, and highly motivated. Iranians were able to seize every advantage that presented itself while the enemy was quickly thrown into confusion. Thirty thousand of their soldiers were slain in the action: a great number of Indians were made captives, and all their elephants, horses, and instruments of war fell into the hands of the conquerors. Then Iranians advanced to the camp of Mohammad and enclosed it on all sides. After 3 days, Mohammad resigned his crown in form, and was treated as a guest in Nader's camp. Then Nader advanced towards the Indian metropolis and encamped near Delhi on Feb, 27 where Mohammad obtained leave in order to prepare his palace for the grand reception.
Nader waited until Norooz to enter Delhi in great celebrations of the ancient Iranian festival and was led to Shah Jahan's palace or Taj Mahal. India had been warned 3 times to deliver Ashraf Afghan's officers which had participated in massacre of many Iranians. These 800 war criminals were seized and hung in Delhi's bazaar. Then Prince Nasrollah's wedding with a daughter of the Mohammad was celebrated with all the marks of joy and festivity. As Nader was now preparing to leave, he convened an assembly of all the princes and ministers of the Gurkani court, and with his own hand replaced the imperial diadem on the head of Mohammad, and helped him to ascend the throne. Mohammad presented in gratitude the most valuable jewels and curiosities including the famous Takhte Tavoos throne. He also offered all the provinces situated on the other side of the river Sind which Nader was glad to annex to his empire, as they were advantageously situated, and as some of them had been formerly considered as part of Khorasan.
The Iranian army left Delhi on May, 25 and Nader ordered it to be announced through all the provinces of Iran, that no taxes are to be collected for the space of three years. (Updated: Aug, 26, 2008)

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