The Iranian History 1733 AD

 


Baghdad Under Nader Siege

Jan, 12, 1733 AD

Body Armour called Four Mirrors used by Iranian soldiers in 17th and 18th centuryOne of Nader's interesting tactics was to take the war outside Iran by threatening Ottomans inside their own field territory. Nader commanded restless cavalry units that could pass deserts and mountains at an incredible speed of 100 kilometers per day. This way he could secure strongholds while his heavy artillery units arrived. When he showed up near Baghdad, he took the Ottomans by surprise. Before laying siege on Baghdad on Jan, 12, 1733, he had taken Kerkuk and Erbil.
However the governor of Baghdad was a wise man who asked him to wait until he received instructions from his court. In fact, he was waiting for troops from Van, Erivan, and Tbilisi who were headed by Osman Pasha. In a fierce battle between the two armies, Iranians were defeated on Jul, 20, 1733. Nader did not know the terrain well and he could hardly save his life after he lost two horses in the battlefield. He lost all his supplies and ammunition and Kerkuk was lost to Ottomans.
But Nader was no ordinary man. He had great ambitions and dedicated his life to those great goals with tremendous energy and vitality, thus; every defeat paved the way for a victory for him. While the Ottomans were celebrating their victory, he was somehow satisfied with taking the war outside Iranian borders. Nader soon started reforming his army to take Baghdad under siege again. (Updated: Jan, 12, 2012)





Second Siege Of Baghdad Ends In Peace

Dec, 2, 1733 AD

An Indian Rupee 1739 minted by Afshar king Nader Shah in Sind after his conquest of India in 1739. Although Nader did not occupy India for a long time and restored Mughal Mohammad Shah to the throne, this coin was like an -I was here sign-.Nader's ambition of driving the Turks from the Persian frontiers required having a winning card against Ottomans. On Feb, 8, Nader passed Tigris on a raft with 2500 men. The governor of Baghdad who was watching his motions sent 30000 men against him with a formidable train of artillery; upon which engagement became inevitable. While Iranians were fighting through despair, a cloud of dust became visible. These were 15000 fresh units who had just passed the Tigris. Nader led them to the attack and the Ottoman army fell in disorder and fled. A siege was laid to Baghdad, and Ahmad, the governor of Baghdad tried to gain some time by pretended negotiations. A numerous army headed by Osman arrived and defeated Nader's forces.
Nader led his into the field again on Sep, 13 with a reinforced army. He first engaged the Ottomans near Kermanshah and seized a great booty of ammunition. He then advanced to Kerkuk.. The first detachment sent by Osman were soon defeated. Another body of 12000 men were detached near Baghdad to counter Nader but soon they were defeated and Nader rushed to the heart of the enemy's army and the battle ended with the death of the Ottoman commander and 10000 of his men. After this victory, with a full assurance of a successful siege , the Iranians returned to Baghdad. On Dec, 2, Ahmad informed Nader that the Ottoman court had given him full powers to restore all regions wrestled from Iranians during the troubles in 1723 on condition that the Iranians would raise the siege of Baghdad. This offer was accepted.
However, in May, 1734, a messenger from the Ottoman court informed him that the treaty signed by Ahmad was no more than a pretext to induce the Iranians to decamp and raise the siege of Baghdad and that their court could not honor it. Iran sent a plenipotentiary to Ottomans, giving them this alternative: either to ratify the convention, made in Baghdad, or to meet the Iranian army in the field. (Updated: Aug, 23, 2008)





English-Persian Glossary
  • Osman Pasha : عثمان پاشا
  • Kermanshah : کرمانشاه(Bakhtaran) باختران Media_Files
  • Ottoman : عثماني(Osmani) Media_Files
  • Tbilisi : تبليس(Tiflis,Teflis) تفليس
  • Iranian : ايراني‌ اهل‌ ايران‌ ، وابسته‌به‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Baghdad : بغداد Media_Files
  • Kerkuk : کرکوک(Kirkuk, Karkuk)
  • Tigris : دجله(Dijlah, Dicle, Hiddekel) Media_Files
  • Second : دوم Media_Files
  • Erivan : اريوان(Yerevan,Iravan) Media_Files
  • Erbil : اربيل
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files
  • Van : وان Media_Files

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