The Iranian History 1732 AD

 


Persian-Ottoman Peace Treaty

Jan, 10, 1732 AD

A page from Haftorang, the most important book of the Safavid era after the Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp. It shows a hamam (Persian bath) Apart from cleaning and shaving, hamam was also a place for socializing eating, drinking and entertainment.There was a peace treaty signed on January, 10, 1732 between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Persia.
In the 17th century, a stalemate between the Ottoman and Safavid empires had been reached by the treaties of Sarab and Zuhab. However, during the short rule of Afghanistan based Hotaki dynasty, chaos in Iran resulted in clashes along frontiers, especially in Caucasus. Meanwhile, Peter 1 of Russia began to occupy North Caucasus and Azerbaijan. Fearing a Russian controlled Caucasus, the Ottomans decided to capture Tbilisi to balance the Russian advance. But this operation resulted in a long Ottoman Safavid war.
Between 1723 and 1730, the Ottomans were able to control South Caucasus by capturing Erivan and Ganjeh in addition to Tbilisi. In the southern fronts (i.e., West Iran), Ottomans captured Tabriz, Urmia, Kermanshah and Hamedan. But after Tahmasp 2nd of Safavid Empire began controlling Iran, Ottoman advance was checked. Both sides were tired enough to end the war. Ahmad Pasha (Ottoman side) and Mohammad Reza Gholi (Persian side) signed the treaty.
The terms of the treaty were:
Ottoman Empire kept its gains in Caucasus,
Ottoman gains in West Iran were conceded to Persia, and
Aras River became the new border line in South Caucasus.
The treaty proved to be an armistice rather than a permanent treaty. Because, neither Ottoman sultan Mahmoud I approved the loss of Tabriz, nor Nader Shah, then the commander in chief of the Persian army, accepted Iranian losses in Caucasus. During Nader Shah’s reign, Afshar Dynasty was able to regain its losses. (Updated: Sep, 1, 2011)





Russians Withdraw From Iranian Territories

Jan, 21, 1732 AD

Illustration of Persian Warrior Afshar king Nader Shah on Horse back by Jonas Hanway from his book Reliable history. Nader was a galant restless fighter who inspired many writers and shaped the history of Persia by defeating invaders.According to an official note submitted to Iranian authorities in Rasht, the Russians nullified their 1724 agreement with Ottomans in which Iran was divided between the two states as a result of a turmoil at the end of the Safavi dynasty. An ambassador from the Russian court arrived in Mashhad on May, 26th who declared that, in compliance with Nader's request, the Empress was resigning the province of Guilan, and other conquests of Peter I on the coasts of the Caspian sea. At the beginning of July, intelligence was brought, that the Russians were departing peaceably from the frontiers of Iran.
On Feb, 1, 1732, a treaty of peace, amity and commerce was signed in Rasht according to which Guilan, Mazandaran, and Astara were to be restored to Persia. Regular commercial, diplomatic and consular relations were to be established between the two empires. This was somehow to prevent Tahmasp from giving in to the Ottomans, although Russians were pessimistic about him; They doubted his success because of his weakness and his mad actions resulting from drunkenness. Tahmasp was described as debauched, having bad commanders, and due to his incapability, he lost the battle of Erivan to Ottomans in spite of the fact that he had numerical superiority.
Events moved swiftly and soon after, Shah Tahmasp was dethroned because of his incompetence. The brilliant warrior, Nader assumed regency and conduct of foreign affairs. Nader was a strong ruler that drove back Ottomans in very short time and gave Russians an ultimatum. He was known as a determined ruler that could not be stopped easily by any army. Despite withdrawal from most of occupied territories, Russians kept some garrisons in Baku. Two years later, right after Nader Shah advanced towards Daghestan, Russians left the area in such a hurry that they had to leave their heavy artillery.
A Russian prince was sent to Iran in order to prevent Iran from making peace with the Ottoman Empire. Before reaching Isfahan in May, 1734, he learned that a peace treaty had been concluded. Nevertheless, he promised help from Russians against Ottomans.
Nader's response was loud and clear; If circumstances compelled him to fight the Turks, he would prevail without help from outside. A real sovereign state does not depend on foreign aid. (Updated: Sep, 2, 2008)





8 Month Old Abbas Becomes King

Aug, 18, 1732 AD

Safavi Cavalary UnitWhile Nader was on a mission to Herat, Shah Tahmasp dared attack Erivan. Without success, on his way back, he was intercepted by an Ottoman army who inflicted heavy loss on the Iranian army. When Shah Tahmasp and few of his officers returned to Isfahan, Ottomans seized Tabriz and Hamedan that was taken back by Nader a year ago. A peace treaty was offered to restore territories on the west side of the Aras river to Iran. Shah's council accepted the treaty but Nader did not honor it, calling it a disgrace. On Aug,16th Nader encamped near Isfahan. Shah Tahmasp attended his camp the next day and arranged a celebration in his honor to smooth him. But the next day, after a meeting with his officers, it was decided that Shah Tahmasp did not really deserve the throne. Thus Abbas, an infant only eight months old, was crowned king of Iran and Nader was proclaimed Regent during his infancy.
Nader's first act as the Regent was, sending Ambassadors to all countries, informing them of the accession of Shah Abbas, and requesting the Indians to prevent the Afghan fugitives from taking shelter in their territories. (Updated: Aug, 22, 2008)





English-Persian Glossary
  • Shah Tahmasp : شاه تهماسب(Shah Tahmasb) شاه طهماسب يکم Media_Files
  • Iranian Army : ارتش ايران Media_Files
  • Caspian Sea : درياي کاسپين Media_Files
  • Afghanistan : افغانستان Media_Files
  • Reza Gholi : رضاقلي
  • Shah Abbas : شاه عباس Media_Files
  • Nader Shah : نادر شاه(Naderkuli, Nadergholi) نادرقلي افشار Media_Files
  • Aras River : رود ارس Media_Files
  • Mazandaran : مازندران(Tabarestan) طبرستان، تپورستان Media_Files
  • Azerbaijan : آذربايجان(Atropatene) Media_Files
  • Kermanshah : کرمانشاه(Bakhtaran) باختران Media_Files
  • Daghestan : داغستان(Dagestan, Daghistan)
  • Caucasus : قفقاز
  • Tahmasp : تهماسپ(Tahmasb) طهماسب
  • Ottoman : عثماني(Osmani) Media_Files
  • Mashhad : مشهد(Mashad) Media_Files
  • Tbilisi : تبليس(Tiflis,Teflis) تفليس
  • Iranian : ايراني‌ اهل‌ ايران‌ ، وابسته‌به‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Dynasty : دودمان ال، خاندان پادشاهان، سلسله Media_Files
  • Caspian : کاسپين(Caspian Sea, Mazandaran, Khazar Sea) بحر خزر، درياي مازندران Media_Files
  • Isfahan : اصفهان(Esfahan, Sepahan,Esparan) اسپه دانه، اسپهان Media_Files
  • Hamedan : همدان(Ecbatana,Hamadan) هکمتانه Media_Files
  • Russian : روسي Media_Files
  • Safavid : صفوي Media_Files
  • Persia : ايران Media_Files
  • Astara : آستارا
  • Hotaki : هتاکي Media_Files
  • Russia : روسيه Media_Files
  • Tabriz : تبريز(Tebriz) Media_Files
  • Afshar : افشار(Avshar,Afshar Tribe) Media_Files
  • Safavi : صفوي Media_Files
  • Erivan : اريوان(Yerevan,Iravan) Media_Files
  • Guilan : گيلان
  • Ganjeh : گنجه(Ganja) Media_Files
  • Zuhab : ذهاب
  • Urmia : اروميه(Urmiya, Orumiyeh, Orumieh,Urma) Media_Files
  • Gholi : قلي(Qoli)
  • Sarab : سراب
  • Rasht : رشت Media_Files
  • Herat : هرات(Areia) Media_Files
  • Aras : ارس(Araks,Araz,Aras River,Araxes) رود ارس
  • Baku : باکو(Bad Koobeh,Bakukh,Bakuyah) باد-کوبه Media_Files
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files
  • Shah : شاه پادشاه‌ Media_Files

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