The Iranian History 1729 AD

 


The Battle Of Damghan

Sep, 20, 1729 AD

Naderi Sun (Khorshid) Palace is located in Kalat 150km north of KhorasanWhen Ashraf Afghan heard that Nader had set out for Herat, he thought of it as a good opportunity to plunder Mashhad. Nader's army quickly reached Khorasan on July, 13, 1729 and he set his artillery in the field and waited. But the Ashraf army did not dare attack Mashhad and they kept on plundering the nearby villages. Nader's preparations were completed in September and on Sep, 20th; he appeared before the enemy in Mehmandoost. Being a military genius, he created a phalanx that was supported on two sides by artillery and dispersed rows of usurpers at every discharge of firearms. Ashraf fled with a few but the great general did not order his men to pursue them and promised to indulge their eagerness for revenge on first occasion. 12,000 of Ashraf's soldiers were killed in this battle while Nader's army lost 4,000 men. The Hotaki army was twice the size of Nader's. The Battle of Damghan ended with Nader Shah's decisive victory on Oct, 5, 1729,
Nader was a great man of politics also; after this victory, he sent an ambassador to the Ottoman court, insisting upon restitution of Azerbaijan, and gave plain hints, that he should soon be able to seize it by force if they paid no attention to his just demand. A year before, he had sent an ambassador to the court of Russia, demanding in high terms the restitution of Guilan, which Peter I, had captured in 1723 when Iran was in a chaos.
When Nader started his next campaign, Ashraf Afghan who had grown more cautious since his defeat, retreated with all his forces to Isfahan, where he massacred most of the inhabitants in cold blood, among them, a number of scientists, poets and learned men.
The Afghans were defeated and evacuated Isfahan to the number of twelve thousand men, but, before quitting the city they had ruined, Ashraf murdered the unfortunate ex-Shah Hossein, and carried off most of the ladies of the royal family and the King's treasure. When Tahmasp 2nd entered Isfahan on December 9, he found only his old mother, who had escaped deportation by disguising herself as a servant, and was moved to tears at the desolation and desecration which met his eyes at every turn.
Nader induced Tahmasp to empower him to levy taxes on his own authority. Then he marched southwards in pursuit of the retiring Afghans, whom he overtook and again defeated near Persepolis. Ashraf fled from Shiraz towards his own country, but cold, hunger and the unrelenting hostility of the inhabitants of the regions which he had to traverse dissipated his forces and compelled him to abandon his captives and his treasure, and he was finally killed by a party of Baluchestan tribesmen. Thus, the disastrous period of Hotaki dominion in Persia ended in 1730 AD after eight years. (Updated: Sep, 20, 2008)





Tahmasp Restored To Throne In Isfahan

Dec, 20, 1729 AD

Hasht Behesht (8 Paradises) Palace Isfahan was built during Shah Soleyman SafaviAfter Nader's decisive victory at Mehmandoost, Nader came in sight of the enemy stationed at an advantagous position on a hill near Isfahan on the evening of Nov, 12. Nader sent his best Kurdish men for surveillence. They slew about four hundred of the rebels, and returned at night with several prisoners who reported that an Ottoman general had joined Ashraf with a formidable army. The law of nations had been violated since field was taken without declaration of war. At dawn, he proceeded towards Ashraf's army but he turned towards Isfahan, turning around the hill. Soon after, a part of the enemy's camp which seemed ill defended came into sight. He ordered one of his officers to attack the camp while he prepared to engage with the attacking enemy at the head of his cavalry. His plan worked and the camp was captured. Having seized their cannon, Ashraf's army was harrassed in the rear. The battle was fiece and after several hours the Ottomans began to give way at noon. They were soon followed by their allies and began to escape towards Shiraz. When the news reached Isfahan, the natives who dwelled in the districts took the matters in their own hands and thus Nader entered the city in cheers and joy.Nader sent the Shah an account of his victory, and invited him to the throne of his ancestors in the metropolis of their empire.
The arrival of Shah Tahmasp recovered Isfahan to its ancient splendour and forty days were spent in celebrations.
Ashraf's last desperate attempt was met by Nader near Shiraz where his troops were cut to pieces and Ashraf had to flee to Kandahar where he was killed by Prince Hossein. Before his death, Ashraf ordered his women to be strangled, fearing they should fall into the hands of his enemies.
At Norooz, Shah granted him four provinces of Khorasan, Mazandaran, Kerman, and Sistan, requesting him to accept the title of Sultan, and to wear a diadem set with jewels. Nader declined bearing any title. (Updated: Aug, 18, 2008)





English-Persian Glossary
  • Shah Tahmasp : شاه تهماسب(Shah Tahmasb) شاه طهماسب يکم Media_Files
  • Mehmandoost : مهماندوست مهمان دوست
  • Baluchestan : بلوچستان(Baloochistan,Baluchistan) Media_Files
  • Persepolis : تخت جمشيد پرسپوليس
  • Nader Shah : نادر شاه(Naderkuli, Nadergholi) نادرقلي افشار Media_Files
  • Mazandaran : مازندران(Tabarestan) طبرستان، تپورستان Media_Files
  • Azerbaijan : آذربايجان(Atropatene) Media_Files
  • Khorasan : خراسان(Khorassan) Media_Files
  • Kandahar : قندهار
  • Tahmasp : تهماسپ(Tahmasb) طهماسب
  • Kurdish : کرد Media_Files
  • Ottoman : عثماني(Osmani) Media_Files
  • Mashhad : مشهد(Mashad) Media_Files
  • Damghan : دامغان(Damqan)
  • Isfahan : اصفهان(Esfahan, Sepahan,Esparan) اسپه دانه، اسپهان Media_Files
  • Persia : ايران Media_Files
  • Kerman : کرمان(Carmania, Kermania) Media_Files
  • Hotaki : هتاکي Media_Files
  • Russia : روسيه Media_Files
  • Shiraz : شيراز تيرازيس Media_Files
  • Sultan : سلطان(Soltan) Media_Files
  • Norooz : نوروز(Nowrooz,Noruz,Nevruz,Nawruz) Media_Files
  • Ashraf : اشرف Media_Files
  • Sistan : سيستان(Drangiana, Seistan) Media_Files
  • Guilan : گيلان
  • Herat : هرات(Areia) Media_Files
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files
  • Shah : شاه پادشاه‌ Media_Files

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