The Iranian History 1722 AD

 


Royal Army Defeated By Ghilzai Chieftains

Mar, 8, 1722 AD

Ashraf Hall Isfahan : Built from wood during Shah Abbas II's reign, it is located inside the imperial palace.The uprising of Mahmoud Ghandahari which was provoked by India was the prelude to the downfall of the Safavid dynasty. While Sultan Hossein was entertaining in his harem, tribal Afghan forces could easily proceed towards west to the heart of the Persian empire with no resistance. The king marched against the invading army on March 8, but the royal army was defeated and fled back to Isfahan in disarray. Despite the fact that Mahmoud did not have an artillery, with his small army he laid siege to the capital hoping to starve citizens into submission. Although the siege lasted from March to October, no help arrived because of lack of popularity that drowned provinces into revolts. Secondly, the enemies such as Russia, India, and Ottomans were waiting for such an opportunity to invade Iranian territories which were scenes of revolts. Isfahan at the meantime was the scene of protests against Hossein's rule. His son, Tahmasp managed to escape before the fall of Isfahan on Oct, 12.
On Oct, 23 Hossein acknowledged Mahmoud as the new shah. Mahmoud who had an unbalanced personality started killing citizens specially those related to the Safavid throne but he kept Hossein alive. Mahmoud was showing all signs of insanity when he died on Oct, 25, 1725. (Updated: Aug, 27, 2008)





Darband Captured By Russians

Aug, 23, 1722 AD

A Russian sketch from Army officers after they captured Derbent in 1722.The declining Safavi dynasty was an opportunity for Peter the great, to deploy 22,000 men and his newly built Caspian fleet and easily capture Darband in southern Daghestan.The declining Safavi dynasty gave Russians the opportunity to invade Persian territory. A quest that challenged Persian hegemony in the region and later ended with Iranians losing sovereignty. Taking advantage of civil disorder in Iran, Peter the great, deployed 22,000 men and his newly built Caspian fleet together with same number of Kazak cavalries marching overland and could easily capture Darband in southern Daghestan. Having secured the Armenian and Georgian support who were fed up with constant invasion of Ottoman and Safavi Muslims, his army encamped at Ganjeh in September same year. In December Rasht was seized by Russians.
In July 1723, Russians were proceeding to Baku, after hearing the Turkish Ottomans entered the southern Caucasia. This forced Shah Tahmasp 2 to sign a peace treaty that left Darband, Baku, Shirvan, Guilan, Mazandaran, and Ganjeh to Russians in Sep, 12, 1723. Fortunately, in 1735, Russians entered a war with Ottomans and made an alliance with Iranians giving back most of the captured territories. (Updated: Jan, 16, 2008)





Epic Fall Of Safavid Capital Isfahan

Oct, 12, 1722 AD

Isfahan Naghshejahan SquareAfter a long siege Isfahan surrendered to Afghan forces. The people of Kandahar had been loyal Iranians until 1709 when due to weakness in leadership of King Sultan Hossein, injustice and corruption made them stage uprisings asking for autonomy. After invading Isfahan, Amir Mahmoud killed more than 80,000 people and had imprisoned Sultan Hossein and his family. 83 days later, on Jan, 4th during a meeting in Mashhad, Iranian noblemen chose Nader Gholi Afshar as the general in charge to end the civil war that was ravaging the country. In 1729, the Afghans were defeated in 3 consequent battles and only few of their leader could escape to Kandahar. After Nader followed them to Kandahar, they found refugee in India. India's refusal to hand out the war criminals caused Nader to seize Delhi briefly. (Updated: Jan, 25, 2008)





English-Persian Glossary
  • Sultan Hossein : سلطان حسين(شاه حسين صفوي) Media_Files
  • Shah Tahmasp : شاه تهماسب(Shah Tahmasb) شاه طهماسب يکم Media_Files
  • Mazandaran : مازندران(Tabarestan) طبرستان، تپورستان Media_Files
  • Daghestan : داغستان(Dagestan, Daghistan)
  • Armenian : ارمني Media_Files
  • Caucasia : قفقاز(Kafkas,Kafkasia)
  • Kandahar : قندهار
  • Tahmasp : تهماسپ(Tahmasb) طهماسب
  • Shirvan : شيروان(Shervan,Sherwan) شروان Media_Files
  • Ottoman : عثماني(Osmani) Media_Files
  • Mashhad : مشهد(Mashad) Media_Files
  • Iranian : ايراني‌ اهل‌ ايران‌ ، وابسته‌به‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Ghilzai : قلزاي(Ghaljis,Gharzais) غرزي
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Darband : دربند Media_Files
  • Caspian : کاسپين(Caspian Sea, Mazandaran, Khazar Sea) بحر خزر، درياي مازندران Media_Files
  • Isfahan : اصفهان(Esfahan, Sepahan,Esparan) اسپه دانه، اسپهان Media_Files
  • Safavid : صفوي Media_Files
  • Russia : روسيه Media_Files
  • Sultan : سلطان(Soltan) Media_Files
  • Afshar : افشار(Avshar,Afshar Tribe) Media_Files
  • Safavi : صفوي Media_Files
  • Guilan : گيلان
  • Ganjeh : گنجه(Ganja) Media_Files
  • Delhi : دهلي Media_Files
  • India : هند هندوستان‌ Media_Files
  • Gholi : قلي(Qoli)
  • Kazak : قزاق(Cossack) Media_Files
  • Rasht : رشت Media_Files
  • Baku : باکو(Bad Koobeh,Bakukh,Bakuyah) باد-کوبه Media_Files
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files
  • Shah : شاه پادشاه‌ Media_Files
  • Army : ارتش Media_Files

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