The Iranian History 1622 AD

 


Hormoz Island Liberated

Apr, 21, 1622 AD

A view from the inside of Portugese Castle in Qeshm IslandFollowing Vasco da Gama who travelled from Portugal to India in 1498, Alfonso Albuquerque visited Hormoz Island in 1507 and offered protection to the local ruler. Emir of Hormoz was loyal to Iranian government and rejected the offer. In 1515, Albuquerque returned with 27 battleships and started an occupation that lasted for almost a century. The Portuguese fortified the Island and used it to regulate passage through Persian Gulf and full control of the trade between India and Europe. Portugal also occupied Gamberon, today's Bandar Abbas. In 1580 Spain defeated Portugal and Shah Abbas succeeded in taking Gamberon back in 1613.
In Oct, 1616, Richard Steel, an English merchant and John Crowther visited the Safavid Royal Court and obtained a decree from Shah Abbas which gave them permission to do trade around Iran. Moreover, a peace treaty with Ottomans in 1618, gave Shah Abbas the opportunity to capture Ras al Khaymah and lay siege on the Portuguese fortress in Qeshm Island.
As Iran did not have a powerful navy and Portugal easily took Qeshm Island back, Shah Abbas had to enter an alliance with the British against the Portuguese, thus giving Britain some trade concessions, promising the development of silk trade in their favor. In Dec, 1621, Iranian forces headed by Imam Gholi Khan, accompanied by the British naval units succeeded in taking the Qeshm Island back. Following this victory, Iranians restlessly attacked the strongly fortified Hormoz Island. The English side consisted of a force supplied by the English East India Company consisting of five warships and four pinnaces. Persians disembarked to capture the town. The English bombarded the castle and sank the Portuguese fleet, and Hormoz was finally liberated on Apr, 21, 1622. Portuguese were forced to retreat to another base at Masqat.
The capture of Hormoz by an Anglo-Persian force in 1622 entirely changed the balance of power and trade.
The Iran-UK alliance gave the British an upper hand against her major competitors namely; Portugal, France, Holland and Spain until mid 18th century when Britain became the superior power in the Persian Gulf. Great Britain gradually became the authority in charge of security in Persian Gulf until a general agreement in 1825 with neighboring Emirates and Sheikhdoms made this role official. Meanwhile the British extended their political influence in the region and used Bushehr as their headquarters. The British representative in Bushehr, authorized to resolve disputes among Arabs was given the title: The king of the Persian Gulf with no crown.
The importance of this historical event should be measured within the timeframe that coincided with assimilation of many civilizations throughout the world by the European colonists.
Following Vasco da Gama who travelled from Portugal to India in 1498, Alfonso Albuquerque visited Hormoz Island in 1507 and offered protection to the local ruler. Emir of Hormoz was loyal to Iranian government and rejected the offer. In 1515, Albuquerque returned with 27 battleships and started an occupation that lasted for almost a century. The Portuguese fortified the Island and used it to regulate passage through Persian Gulf and full control of the trade between India and Europe. Portugal also occupied Gamberon, today's Bandar Abbas. In 1580 Spain defeated Portugal and Shah Abbas succeeded in taking Gamberon back in 1613.
In Oct, 1616, Richard Steel, an English merchant and John Crowther visited the Safavid Royal Court and obtained a decree from Shah Abbas which gave them permission to do trade around Iran. Moreover, a peace treaty with Ottomans in 1618, gave Shah Abbas the opportunity to capture Ras al Khaymah and lay siege on the Portuguese fortress in Qeshm Island.
As Iran did not have a powerful navy and Portugal easily took Qeshm Island back, Shah Abbas had to enter an alliance with the British against the Portuguese, thus giving Britain some trade concessions, promising the development of silk trade in their favor. In Dec, 1621, Iranian forces headed by Imam Gholi Khan, accompanied by the British naval units succeeded in taking the Qeshm Island back. Following this victory, Iranians restlessly attacked the strongly fortified Hormoz Island. The English side consisted of a force supplied by the English East India Company consisting of five warships and four pinnaces. Persians disembarked to capture the town. The English bombarded the castle and sank the Portuguese fleet, and Hormoz was finally liberated on Apr, 21, 1622. Portuguese were forced to retreat to another base at Masqat.
The capture of Hormoz by an Anglo-Persian force in 1622 entirely changed the balance of power and trade.
The Iran-UK alliance gave the British an upper hand against her major competitors namely; Portugal, France, Holland and Spain until mid 18th century when Britain became the superior power in the Persian Gulf. Great Britain gradually became the authority in charge of security in Persian Gulf until a general agreement in 1825 with neighboring Emirates and Sheikhdoms made this role official. Meanwhile the British extended their political influence in the region and used Bushehr as their headquarters. The British representative in Bushehr, authorized to resolve disputes among Arabs was given the title: The king of the Persian Gulf with no crown.
The importance of this historical event should be measured within the timeframe that coincided with assimilation of many civilizations throughout the world by the European colonists.
April, 21st is celebrated in Iran as the National Persian Gulf Day. (Updated: Jul, 22, 2010)





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