The Iranian History 1618 AD

 


Battle Of Pol Shekasteh

Sep, 10, 1618 AD

A 16th century map of the city of Soltaniyeh by Ottoman Nasuh. Mongol Ilkhanate ruler Oljaitu also known as Mohammad Khodabandeh intended Soltaniyeh to be the largest and most magnificent city in the world.A massive Ottoman army invaded Iran in late 1617 AD without facing a great challenge. Grand Vezir Khalil Pasha considered retreat of Qaraqchay Khan as a sign of his imminent victory yet he proceeded with caution. Shah Abbas had ordered his army to let the invaders enter deep inside the Iranian soil and wait for a favorable opportunity. Soldiers of both armies were brave and experienced and their famous veteran commanders knew nothing but aiming for victory.
On Sep, 9, 1918 something interesting happened.
Inside the Ottoman ranks, one of the soldiers of Yenicheri contingents named Ali fled to the Iranian camp and informed Iranian commanders of Khalil Pasha's plans for a Camisado using 50,000 units. Ali was probably a spy because he was quickly promoted as Ali Beyk accompanying 30,000 Kizilbash fighters of the Safavid army who proceeded to a strategically advantageous position in Pol Shekasteh. Before the dawn on Sep, 10, 1918 the Ottomans were surprised to confront the Safavid cavalry, while expecting them to be asleep in their camp 5 km further !
A fierce battle was inevitable. The Ottomans did not have time to install their heavy cannons and after a short gunfight, swords began to talk. Casualties were heavy on the Ottoman side. An estimated 40,000 soldiers mostly from Tatar origin were killed and the invaders lost a great chunk of their manpower.
Shah Abbas while prepared for the worst to happen received the news of this great victory in a letter on Sep, 12th. While the invading army was preparing to retreat, happy civilians went back to their homes and negotiations began in which Iran could dictate her terms for peace. (Updated: Dec, 8, 2011)





Sarab Peace Treaty With Ottomans

Sep, 26, 1618 AD

A portrait of the Safavid king Shah Abbas the Great in a European style hat with a moustache. The greatest of the Safavid monarchs came to power in 1587 at the age 16 following the forced abdication of his father, Shah Muhammad Khodabandeh.Treaty of Sarab was a treaty between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia after the war of 1615 - 1618 signed on the Sep, 26, 1618.
By the treaty of Isfahan in 1613, the Ottoman Empire had agreed to turn back Caucasus and Northwest Iran to Safavid Persia. Iranians on the other hand refused to pay an annual tribute of 200, a pretext for Ottomns to start a war in 1615.
The Ottoman commander in chief Grand Vezir Okuz Kara Mehmet Pasha tried to capture Erivan which was recently abandoned by the treaty of Isfahan. But he had to lift the siege after 44 days. When the next commander in chief Damat Halil Pasha attacked Ardebil, Shah Abbas offered peace.
The terms of the treaty was similar to those of treaty of Isfahan with several minor rectifications on border line. Also, the annual tribute of Persian side was reduced from 200 loads to 100 loads.
This treaty proved that a stalemate between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia had been reached and neither side might gain substantial territories in the long run. In the following decades there were times when Ottomans succeeded to storm Tabriz and there were times when Persians succeeded to capture Baghdad. But these victories were all temporary and the balance of power between the two states continued up to the 20th century. (Updated: Sep, 1, 2011)





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