The Iranian History 1613 AD


The Isfahan Treaty With Ottomans

Apr, 16, 1613 AD

The magnificent Roof at the Safavid Chehelsotoon Palace in Isfahan with various colorful designs is a materpiece that has been inspiring carpet makers, painters, and other artists in Iran.After 3 consequent years of several battles with Ottomans in which Iranians were victorious, the Ottoman envoy reaches Isfahan to sign a peace treaty according to which the Ottoman Empire accepted waiver of all rights and claims regarding Kafkas region. Erivan, Ghares and Van were battlegrounds in which the new Iranian army was deployed. Unlike the times when army units such As the Kizilbash were like tribal mercanaries who were more loyal to their tribal leaders than the central government, Iran's army was comprised of conscripted persons suited for the job.
The terms of the Isfahan Peace Treaty:
The Ottoman Empire agreed to return all territory gained by the treaty of Istanbul of 1590.
The border line became the line drawn in the treaty of Amasya in 1555.
Persia agreed to pay an annual tribute of 200 loads of silk.
The pilgrim route of Persian pilgrims to Hajj was changed (over Syria instead of Iraq.
This treaty is the first treaty in Ottoman history by which the empire agreed to lose territory. On the other hand, this treaty was a big success for Shah Abbas Safavi. By the treaty he both increased his realm and restored Safavid prestige. However, Abbas refused to pay the tribute, and the war re-started in 1615 (Updated: Sep, 1, 2011)

Safavid Venture In Georgia

Oct, 17, 1613 AD

An antique Persian Carpet from Safavid era made in Isfahan around 1660, during the reign of Shah Abbas. In 2008, this artwork was sold in an auction in New York for 4.5 million dollars, another reason why buying hand-woven Persian carpets is an investmentShah Abbas marched from Isfahan towards Ardebil on Oct, 17, 1613. His next stop was Karabagh in a campaign to take control of the Iranian side of Georgia, especially Kartli, Kakheti and Meskheti where revolts had broken out. It seemed crucial for Shah Abbas to take control of the Iranian share of Georgia during peace negotiations with the Ottoman Empire.
When the Safavid Army set foot in Georgia, revolting Loarsab Khan and Tahmoures Khan fled to the Ottoman-controlled side of Georgia. They found refugee at the court of Gorgin Khan; the Beylerbeygi of Ottoman Georgia. Loarsab Khan surrendered in early 1614 but Tahmoures engaged in a bloody hit and run strategy supported by Gorgin Khan, rendering the peace negotiations between the two empires volatile.
The Ottoman Vezir and the main supporter of peace negotiations with Persia; Nasuh Pasha was charged with treason and he was executed on Oct, 18, 1614 and Mohammad Pasha, the Beylerbeygi of Egypt replaced him.
While Shah Abbas was returning to Isfahan in April 1615, Sultan Ahmet deployed his new Vezir at the head of a great army to Azarbaijan. In coordination, rebel forces under Davoud Bey of Georgia joined the Ottoman forces against the Iranian army. They ambushed a contingent of Kizilbash forces commanded by famous Esfandiar Bey Omarbekrloo and killed most of them. Then they started a massacre of Shia citizens in Georgia and destroyed many Safavid settlements.
Shah Abbas marched in anger from Guilan towards Georgia in March, 1616. His revenge was brutal. More than 70,000 Ottomans and Georgians were reportedly killed and around 30,000 young Georgians were taken slave.
Although history cannot be judged, yet this massacre of Georgians cannot be justified and was a cause to disadvantage and unpopularity of the Safavid in Caucasia in the long run, the blood on their hands remains as a big stain in the Iranian History. (Updated: Nov, 30, 2011)

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