The Iranian History 1606 AD


Ganjeh Taken Back From Ottomans

Jul, 5, 1606 AD

The Shah Abbas Mosque is one of few remaining Safavid era monuments in Ganjeh in today's Azerbaijan Republic.The original brick dome, (probably destroyed) has been replaced by a tin one. Russians Ganjeh took Ganjeh from Iran in 1813.The epic defeat of Ottoman army of 100,000 men headed by Sinan Pasha in 1605 provided Shah Abbas the morals to complete his conquest of Greater Azarbaijan. He marched towards north Azarbaijan in winter of 1604 taking his time for the forces of Allahverdi Khan to return from Fars and join his camp in the spring. Then he dismissed the Khorasan garrison.
The Iranian army took the well-fortified Ganjeh Castle under siege from April, 1606 asking the Ottomans to surrender. But their commander Mohammad Pasha who was originally from Tabriz refused as started a brave resistance.
After a bloody war in which about 2500 Ottoman units were killed, the city of Ganjeh was captured on July, 5, 1606. Many Kizilbash units were killed too. Mohammad Pasha, the Ottoman governor of the city was taken captive and sent to the Mazandaran prison. Another account states that he was beheaded due to his mistreatment of Iranian captives, especially for his execution of a relative of Shah Abbas. Ottomans had taken control of the ancient city during a power struggle among Safavi princes.
The history of the city of Ganjeh goes back to the Sassanid Empire however, some Arab historians date it to the time of caliph Al-Motevakkel and made up baseless stories of a governor seeing a dream in which a treasure is found in the region which sounds unfounded. The Iranian history has been systematically subject to sophism and fallacy as a tool to ignore the historical heritage of the region.
With the collapse of the Safavid Empire in 1722, Ganjeh fell in the hands of Ottoman Turks once again. Nader Shah liberated Ganjeh and Tbilisi in 1735. In 1813, after the Qajar army was defeated by Russians, the infamous Gulistan treaty was signed which left Ganjeh with most of Azerbaijan and Georgia to Russians. The city changed name a couple of times (Elizavetpol, Kirovabad) until 1991 when the Azerbaijan Republic became independent and the city became Ganjeh again; famous for its Persian poet Nezami Ganjavi. (Updated: Aug, 23, 2008)

An Ottoman Messenger To Persia

Oct, 9, 1606 AD

The Shah Abbasi Hotel Isfahan was originally a caravansaray built at the time of Sultan Hossein about 300 years ago as a caravansaray. The 1974 film Ten Little Indians, starring Oliver Reed and Elke Sommer, was shot here.After capturing the Ganjeh Castle, the Tbilisi Castle surrendered and Shah Abbas marched from Georgia towards Erivan and Nakhjevan to take the Shirvan Castle back from the Ottomans.
At this time, a woman named Golchehreh Khanoom visited the Safavid court. She was the wife of Simon the governor of Georgia who was taken captive by the Ottomans and was imprisoned in Istanbul. Golchehreh somehow convinced the Ottoman court to became the special envoy from Sultan Ahmet's grandmother Safiyeh Sultan to meet Zeynab Beygom, the aunt of Shah Abbas. This was how the Safavid court received the peace offer from the Ottomans.
In reply Zeynab Beygom suggested that peace would be acceptable if the Ottomans returned the occupied Iranian territory and that Shah Abbas the Great was determined to liberate the land of his grandfather Shah Ismail. In return, Iran would abandon the Ottoman territories seized by war.
Golchehreh Khanoom took off for Istanbul on Oct, 9, 1606 with a private message from Shah's aunt to Sultan's grandmother.
As a result, once again in Feb, 1607, the Ottoman Vezir Darvish Mohammad Pasha sent an envoy to Iran demanding peace negotiations. Shah Abbas sent his trustee Mohammad Bey Rumloo to the Ottoman court on Feb, 22, 1607. It was obvious that both sides wanted to live in peace knowing that continuing war would result in great loss for both sides. Yet, when the Ottoman Vezir sent his special envoy Kheiroddin to Iran in 1608, Shah Abbas showed great hospitality and hosted the guest for about a year sending him back in 1609 with gifts and presents.
The Ottomans suggested that Iran has already recovered most of her territorial loss during the war and a peace could be brokered. Shah Abbas thought that Ottomans were just buying time and captured Iranian cities of Baku, Darband and Shamakhi in 1607 to make the enemy understand that he was seriously able to take what rightfully belonged to Iran if they were not given through negotiations. (Updated: Nov, 20, 2011)

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