The Iranian History 1301 AD

 


Amir Mobarezoddin Is Born

Feb, 26, 1301 AD

Iranian Poet Hafez Shirazi was a revered master of Persian poetry with his famous masterpiece Divan which has been part of Iranian lifestyle for since 1300s. He perfected ghazal as a verse form of 6-15 couplets linked by unity of subject and symbolism.Mobarezoddin Muhammad, founder of the Muzaffarid Dynasty was born on March, 5, 1301 in Meybod of Yazd. He was brought up at the Ilkhanates court but returned to Meybod upon the death of Oljaitu. In around 1319 he overthrew the Atabeg of Yazd and was subsequently recognized as governor of the city by the central Ilkhanate government. Following this he began fighting against the Neguderis, a Mongol tribal group. He managed to face this crisis with a minimum of loss.
The Mozaffarid Dynasty was a family that settled in Khorasan from the beginning of Caliph Rule there. They stayed in Khorasan up until the Mongol invasion of that province, at which point they fled to Yazd. Serving under the Ilkhanate, they gained prominence when Sharafoddin Muzaffar was made governor of Meybod. He was tasked with crushing the robber-bands that were roaming around the country.
In the wake of the loss of Ilkhanate authority in central Iran following the death of Abu Saeed, Mobarezoddin continued to carry out his expansionary policy. In 1339 or 1340 he attacked the province of Kerman and seized it from its Mongol governor, Ghotboddin. Ghotboddin was able to retake the province for a short time after receiving aid from the Kartid dynasty of Herat, but Mobarezoddin permanently gained control of Kerman in late 1340. The city of Bam was besieged and conquered a few years after this.
After the conquest of Kerman, Mobarezoddin Mohammad became a rival of the neighboring Injuids, who controlled Shiraz and Isfahan. Although the Muzaffarids and Injuids had traditionally been on friendly terms with one another, the Injuid Abu Ishaq's desire to gain Kerman led him to start a drawn-out conflict with the Muzaffarids in 1347. He unsuccessfully besieged Yazd (1350–1351), after which his fortunes declined rapidly. Defeated on the field in 1353, Abu Ishaq was forced to take refuge in Shiraz and finally surrender. He managed to escape from Shiraz and fled to Isfahan, but Mobarezoddin pursued him, took the city and executed the Injuid ruler. Fars and western Iran were now under his control.
With the destruction of Injuid authority, the Muzaffarids were the strongest power in central Iran, and Shiraz was made their capital. Mobarezoddin Mohammad's strength was such that when the khan of the Golden Horde, Jani Beg, sent an offer to become his vassal, he was able to decline. In fact, he pushed on into Azerbaijan, which Jani Beg had conquered in 1357. He defeated the khan's governor Akhichuq and occupied Tabriz, but realized that he could not hold his position against the Jalayerid troops marching from Baghdad and soon retreated. The Jalayerids would therefore maintain a hold on Tabriz, despite further attempts by the Muzaffarids to take it.
Mobarezoddin Mohammad was mentioned as a cruel ruler in Persian poetry of Hafez of Shiraz. In 1358, his son Shah Shoja blinded and imprisoned him. A temporary reconciliation was reached, but it failed to last and he died, again in prison, in 1363. (Updated: Aug, 8, 2012)





English-Persian Glossary
  • Sharafoddin Muzaffar : شرف الدين مظفر
  • Golden Horde : اردوي زرين آلتين‌اردو
  • Muzaffarid : آل مظفر(Mozaffarian Dynasty) مظفريان
  • Shah Shoja : شاه شجاع(Shah Shuja) ابوالفوارس جلال الدين شاه شجاع Media_Files
  • Mozaffarid : آل مظفر(Muzaffarid,Al-e-Mozaffar) مظفري Media_Files
  • Azerbaijan : آذربايجان(Atropatene) Media_Files
  • Ilkhanate : ايلخان Media_Files
  • Abu Ishaq : ابو اسحاق
  • Jalayerid : جلايريان(Jalayirid sultanate,Jalayerian Dynasty)
  • Abu Saeed : ابوسعيد بهادرخان(Abu Said Bahadur Khan) Media_Files
  • Khorasan : خراسان(Khorassan) Media_Files
  • Akhichuq : Hod],r
  • Jani Beg : جاني بيگ
  • Oljaitu : اولجايتو(?ljeitü,Mohammad Khodabandeh) محمد خدابنده Media_Files
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Dynasty : دودمان ال، خاندان پادشاهان، سلسله Media_Files
  • Isfahan : اصفهان(Esfahan, Sepahan,Esparan) اسپه دانه، اسپهان Media_Files
  • Baghdad : بغداد Media_Files
  • Injuid : آل اينجو(House of Inju)
  • Kerman : کرمان(Carmania, Kermania) Media_Files
  • Kartid : کارتيان(Kartid Dynasty,Kurts,Kartian Dynasty)
  • Shiraz : شيراز تيرازيس Media_Files
  • Tabriz : تبريز(Tebriz) Media_Files
  • Atabeg : اتابک(Atabak)
  • Meybod : ميبد Media_Files
  • Mongol : مغول Media_Files
  • Hafez : حافظ لسان الغيب،شيخ محمد شمس الدين حافظ شيرازي Media_Files
  • Herat : هرات(Areia) Media_Files
  • Yazd : يزد Media_Files
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files
  • Shah : شاه پادشاه‌ Media_Files
  • Fars : فارس Media_Files
  • Beg : بگ(Beyg) بيگ
  • Bam : بم Media_Files

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