The Iranian History 539 BC


The Battle of Opis

Jul, 25, 539 BC

Cyrus The Great Cylinder which is believed to be the first charter of human rights is on display British Museum, 2009The armies of Persia under Cyrus the Great and the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus engaged at the Battle of Opis, fought on Sep, 25, 539 BC.
At the time, Babylonia was the last major power in western Asia that was not yet under Persian control. The battle was fought near the strategic riverside city of Opis, north of the capital Babylon. It resulted in a decisive defeat for the Babylonians.
Opis was a place of considerable strategic importance at one end of the Median Wall. Control of Opis enabled Cyrus the Great to break through the fortified city walls and open the road to the capital.
A few days later, the city of Sippar surrendered to the Persians and Cyrus's forces entered Babylon apparently without a fight. Cyrus was subsequently proclaimed king of Babylonia and its subject territories, thus ending the independence of Babylon and incorporating the Babylonian Empire into the greater Persian Empire. (Updated: May, 21, 2011)

Cyrus The Great Enters Babylon

Sep, 30, 539 BC

Cyrus TombThe Achaemenid king, and the founder of Iran, Cyrus The Great became king in 559 B.C. Born in 585 B.C., he was a nobleman in all ways. His father was Cambyses son of Cyrus and his great grand fathers were all Persian kings generation after generation. His mother Mandana was the daughter of Astyages who was from a continuous generation of Median rulers. Cyrus was called the father of his people.
He defeated the Median king Astyages who sent an army to Anshan commanded by Harpagus in 550. This implied taking over several subject Median countries: Armenia, Cappadocia, Parthia, Drangiana, and Aria ruled by vassal kings called Satraps.
His army defeated Crusus and captured Sardis in 545 B.C. adding Lydia to his realm. One of the greatest historical events of all times is conquering Babylon and capturing king Nabonidus by the Persian army with almost no resistance. There, Cyrus The Great freed the Jews from their Babylon captivity, and Aramaic language was instituted to the greater near east as official language. Cyrus was killed in 530 B.C. fighting against a nomadic tribe called Massagetes in today's Kazakhstan and left his reign to Cambyses.
His mother had died same year in winter when Cyrus was in Pars. People of Akkad and Babylon mourned his death for 5 days according to inscriptions left from priest of Babylon. According to Torah, Cyrus The Great is the Messiah sent by Yahweh while Babylonians claimed Cyrus was sent by their God; That makes Cyrus the great and whatever he left for us as a world heritage. His legacy is the founding not only of an empire but of a culture and civilization that continued to expand after his death and lasted for two centuries. (Updated: Dec, 23, 2007)

World Cyrus Day

Oct, 29, 539 BC

Cyrus Tomb PasargadaeOct, 29 is the world Cyrus day celebrated worldwide. Babylon's seizure completed on this day. Supporters of human rights cherish this day to mark the famous Cylinder of Cyrus which is known to be the first chapter of human rights in the world history, now kept in the British museum. Cyrus The Great observed a policy of tolerance during his time that was the key to creation of the greatest empire on the earth so far.
Cyrus The Great conquered by diplomacy as well as by force. He was the subject of a rich legend in Persia and Greece. He appears in the Bible as the liberator of the Jews held captive in Babylon. He has long been revered by Persians almost as a religious figure. Some Iranians believe that he is also the savior with two horns in Quran, and that prophet Mohammad's Ghoreish tribe were descendants of Cyrus. (Updated: Dec, 15, 2007)

Cyrus Builds Babylon City Walls

Apr, 1, 539 BC

Cyrus Cilinder Human Rights ChapterCyrus The Great started a manner just the opposite of other conquerers who burnt and destroyed conquered cities. He brought peace and security to the societies and that was the reason why citizens of Babylon had asked for his help to get rid of the oppressive king Nabonidus. Cyrus personally took shovel and basic construction materials and started building city walls for Babylon. The same people who had become weak under constant pressure regained their dignity. Unlike other kings who claimed being prophets of God, sons of God, or God himself Cyrus showed people that he was one of them which was an essential material for creating world's greatest empire. The Cyrus Cylinder is the first declaration of human rights that bans slavery, guarantees freedom of religion and is one of its kind to this date.
Achaemenid architecture was based on spatial relationships, orientation and support of activities within a designed environment. The ruins of Perspolis reveals the fact that every nation's identity within the empire was to be preserved as a precious gift of God in order to build, decorate, and operate complex structures; a revolutionary view describing human civilization. (Updated: Dec, 6, 2007)

English-Persian Glossary

Latest Additions to Iranian History Chronicle: