The Iranian History 522 BC


Gaumata Revolts Or Was He Bardia?

Mar, 11, 522 BC

Behistun Inscription shows Achaemenid king Dariush the Great putting his feet over the body of Bardia (Gaumata) or false Smerdis who was a magian claiming to be the brother of Cambyses. Other leaders of concurrent revolts are brought before him in chains.Cambyses had a reign full of speculations. Some historians say he married his own sister Atoosa, assassinated his own brother Bardia, killed the sacred Apis bull of Egypt, burnt the body of Amasis 2, and committed suicide in 522 BC; to this account he was mentally sick. On the other hand it's certain that he had reduced the temple taxes and did his best to behave people well just like his father.
For one thing, it is certain that the priests did not like him because he limited their sources of income and there were many rumors and lies surrounding his life but he died on his way back home near Damascus. The last letter that is referred to Cambyses' reign was dated 18 April 522
According to the Behistun Inscription Gaumata revolted on March, 11, 522 claiming to be Bardia, the younger son of Cyrus and he became king on July, 1, 522 But the elite chose Dariush as their leader. Dariush married Atoosa to reinforce his legitimacy and moved fast to suppress the revolt of Gaumata who had already found many followers from Persian and Median. All available sources indicate that Dariush and six noblemen killed Gaumata on Sep, 29, 522. (Updated: Nov, 9, 2012)

Smerdis Proclaims King

Jul, 1, 522 BC

Cuneiform Gold Plate PerspolisWhen Cambyses was conquering Egypt, someone calling himself Smerdis claiming to be his brother rebelled and proclaimed king. His rule started on March, 11 and on July, 1st he formally became king. He was killed however by Dariush in Sikayauvati in Media on Sep, 29. One possible cause Smerdis quickly gained popularity was that he ordered a three years remission of taxes and military service from all nations in his domain. The Behistun Inscription by Dariush states that he was the false Smerdis, a Magian that was Median by birth and not Persian at all. (Updated: Feb, 28, 2008)

The Coup Against Gaumata

Sep, 29, 522 BC

Dariush The GreatDariush, the son of Hystaspes together with six noblemen; Otanes, Gobryas, Intaphrenes, Hydarnes, Megabyzus, and Ardumanis entered the palace and according to a sophisticated plan they had made, they succeeded in a coup against Gaumata and assassinated him. They charged that Gaumata who claimed to be Bardia, the younger son of Cyrus the great was indeed a Magian who resembled him a lot. Therefore putting an end to Gaumata's reign for a couple of months. This story is not easy to believe but that is the text on Behistun Inscription and also Herodotus.
Dariush ascended the throne but his reign was not easy. He had to suppress 19 rebellions against him in diverse parts of the Persian Empire from Babylon to Ecbatana to Lydia. (Updated: Dec, 9, 2007)

Nebuchadnezzar 2. Proclaims King

Oct, 3, 522 BC

Persian Soldier Fighting Beast PerspolisNidintu-Bel proclaimed king of Babylon. Claiming to be the son of Nabonidus, the last king before Babylon lost its independence, and called himself Nebu Chadnezzar 3. This happened right after Dariush suppressed a serious uprising by Gaumata. Without hesitation, Dariush advanced to Babylon with his troops crushing their army in Dec, 13th after passing the Tigris river in the middle of a cold winter. Nidintu-Bel escaped and re-gathered another army just to see another defeat near Zazana on the Euphrates. After this victory, Dariush killed Nidintu-Bel. After Dariush went back to suppress another uprising by Phraortes in Media, another rebellion in Babylon started by Arakha who proclaimed king and ascended the throne as Nebu Chadnezzar IV. But a general name Intaphrenes was enough to deal with him in 521. (Updated: Aug, 21, 2010)

Dariush Defeats Nidintu-Bel

Dec, 13, 522 BC

Darius I SealNidintu-Bel claimed to be Nebu Chadnezzar son of Nabonidus. Nebu Chadnezzar 3's name was first mentioned in a letter written in Oct, 3, 522 only 4 days after Gaumata was killed. The empire was in a chaos. To suppress this rebellion Dariush himself leaded an army using the advantage of having a full-fledge army after the Egypt expedition. The first battleground was in Tigris just where Cyrus had defeated Nabonidus. The river was impassable and Dariush inflated animal skins and used camels and horses to pass the army through the river. This happening in December, the river must have been raving. Dariush became victorious by the help of Ahouramazda as he states. The glory of the victory must have had such a strong effect that; right after this Dariush sends an envoy to Elam where there was another rebellion headed by Assina. In his message Dariush had asked for immediate extradition of Assina. Elamites did so and Assina was killed by Dariush himself. After this relief, Dariush and his army approach Babylon quickly and take the city under siege. On Dec, 18 a second defeat comes for the Babylonian army near the city right before it was captured. Nidintu-Bel was captured and executed.
At the same time two more rebellions took place: One by Phraortes in Media and the other by Vahyazdata in Persia. (Updated: Dec, 11, 2007)

Vivana Breaks The Siege In Kapisa

Dec, 29, 522 BC

Embossed relief of Dariush The Great accepting representatives from alll parts of Achaemenid  Empire In PerspolisVivana was the Persian Satrap of Arachosia appointed by King Cambyses. Arachosia was a prosperous Satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire along the Tarnak River on the road to the Indus valley.
During the rebels after the death of Cambyses, a usurper named Smerdis seized power in Achaemenid Empire. Vivana refused to submit to Smerdis who then appointed his own Satrap on the head of an army that besieged the citadel in Kapisa (Ghandahar) for several weeks. As soon as Dariush the Great seized power, he started sending additional supplies and forces to all parts of Achaemenid Empire. Therefore Vivana was able to break the siege and defeat the rebel army on Dec, 29, 522 B.C. but it was not a decisive victory for Vivana.
According to Dariush in the Behistun Inscription, the rebels re-assembled and went against Vivana to give him battle on Feb, 12, 521.In Gandutava the rebel army tasted a bitter defeat and Vahyazdata's commander lost 4.579 men. Then the rebel army commander fled with a few horsemen to a fortress, but there was no place for them to hide from the determined Vivana soldiers who tracked them on foot and killed them all.
In the Bisotoun Inscription, King Dariush says:
Vahyazdata, who called himself Smerdis, sent men to Arachosia against a Persian named Vivana, my servant, the satrap of Arachosia. He appointed a certain man to be their leader, and thus he spoke to him, saying: Go smite Vivana and the host which acknowledges king Dariush.
Then that army that Vahyazdata had sent marched against Vivana to give him battle. At a fortress called Kapisa they fought the battle. Ahouramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahouramazda my army utterly overthrew that rebel host. On the thirteenth day of the month Anamaka was the battle fought by them. (Updated: Apr, 4, 2008)

Vaumisa Suppressed Armenian Rebellion

Dec, 31, 522 BC

The Shahanshah of the Achaemenid Empire : Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, Dariush the Great, and Smerdis (Bardia) as perceived by Nurembery Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel (1440-1514), a good example of Medieval World Histories.After Dariush proclaimed king, revolts began in every corner of the Persian Empire; the most important of which was the revolt of Median king Phraortes whose rebellion spread to Parthia and Armenia. Persian general Vaumisa was appointed as the commander of one of the two armies to suppress the Armenian revolt. Dadarshi commanded the other army and was ordered to move along Euphrates in order to secure passages to Syria and Lydia.
Considering the size of the Persian Empire, that stretched from Greece to India, great logistics and strategy was involved in order to maintain the order while so many revolts took place almost simultaneously. Vaumisa advanced along the Zab River towards Armenia and on Dec, 31, 522 B.C. in a battle near Arbela dispersed the revolting army after killing about 2000 units. But instead of chasing the fleeing rebels he secured his position until Dariush's army eradicated Phraortes. After that he won his second victory on June, 11, 521 killing 2000 and taking 1500 prisoner and as the remaining rebels descended south Dadarshi confronted them; thus putting an end to the revolt. (Updated: Feb, 19, 2009)

English-Persian Glossary
  • Achaemenid Empire : امپراطوري هخامنشي(Hakhamaneshi,Hakhamaneshian Dynasty) خاندان هخامنشيان Media_Files
  • Dariush the Great : داريوش کبير(Darius I) Media_Files
  • Cyrus the Great : کورش کبير(Cyrus II) Media_Files
  • Nebu Chadnezzar : نبو خادناصر(Nabo Khadnassar, Nebuchadnezzar)
  • Ahouramazda : اهورامزدا(Ahuramazda, Ahura Mazda) Media_Files
  • Intaphrenes : ويندفرنه(Intaphernes) وندفرنه
  • Sikayauvati : سيکايواتي
  • Achaemenid : هخامنشي Media_Files
  • Vahyazdata : وهيزداته(Smerdis, Bardia) Media_Files
  • Gandutava : گاندوتاوا(Ganduvada)
  • Hystaspes : ويشت اسپه(Vishtaspa) هيستاسپس
  • Herodotus : هرودوت Media_Files
  • Arachosia : آراکوزيا رخج،آراخوزيا،هرانوتيش Media_Files
  • Ardumanis : آردومانيس(Ardumanish)
  • Megabyzus : بغ بوخش(Baghabuxsha)
  • Ghandahar : قندهار(Kandahar, Kandehar, Kandihar, Gandhara) Media_Files
  • Phraortes : فرورتيش(Fravarta,Khshathrita,Farvartish) Media_Files
  • Nabonidus : نبونهيد Media_Files
  • Euphrates : فرات(Euphrates River) رود فرات Media_Files
  • Armenian : ارمني Media_Files
  • Hydarnes : وي درنه(Vidarneh)
  • Ecbatana : اکباتان(Ekbatana,Hamedan) هکمتانه، هاگماتان Media_Files
  • Damascus : دمشق شام Media_Files
  • Amasis 2 : احمسس(Khnemibre Ahmose-si-Neit)
  • Dadarshi : دادارسي(Didarsi,Dadarsi)
  • Cambyses : کمبوجيه(Cambysis) کامبيز Media_Files
  • Bisotoun : بيستون(Behistun,Bisotoon) بغستان Media_Files
  • Anamaka : سرماده(Anâmaka,Sarmadeh,Day) دي
  • Parthia : پارت Media_Files
  • Gobryas : گاوبروو Media_Files
  • Smerdis : اسمرديس(Bardia) برديا Media_Files
  • Gaumata : گاوماته Media_Files
  • Armenia : ارمنستان(Armanestan,Armenistan) Media_Files
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Vaumisa : واميسا
  • Satrapy : ساترابي استان (تقسيمات کشوري) هخامنشي
  • Babylon : بابل Media_Files
  • Dariush : داريوش(Darius) Media_Files
  • Magian : مغان(Moghan,Masmoghan) Media_Files
  • Vivana : ويوانا
  • Persia : ايران Media_Files
  • Greece : يونان(Ionia,Yunan) Media_Files
  • Tarnak : تارناک درياي ترناک
  • Arbela : اربيل(Erbil, Arbil) Media_Files
  • Assina : آترينه
  • Tigris : دجله(Dijlah, Dicle, Hiddekel) Media_Files
  • Otanes : هوتنه(Houtan)
  • Bardia : برديا(Bardya, Smerdis,Tonyoxarces) Media_Files
  • Atoosa : آتوسا(Atossa, Hutaosa,Atousa) Media_Files
  • Satrap : ساتراپ‌ استاندار قديم‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Arakha : ارخه(Nebuchadnezzar 4th)
  • Zazana : زازانا
  • Kapisa : کاپيسا
  • Media : سرزمين ماد Media_Files
  • Cyrus : کورش(Kurosh, Kourosh, Koresh) Media_Files
  • Egypt : مصر(Al Mesr) Media_Files
  • India : هند هندوستان‌ Media_Files
  • Lydia : ليديا Media_Files
  • Indus : ايندوس(Hindu)
  • Syria : سوريه Media_Files
  • Apis : اپافوس(Hapis,Hapi-ankh) Media_Files
  • Elam : ايلام(Ilam) Media_Files
  • Zab : زاب(Zaab River) رودخانه زاب Media_Files

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