The Iranian History 521 BC


Hydarnes Wins A Victory At Maru

Jan, 12, 521 BC

Nobleman IranianDariush the Great became king of the Achaemenid Empire in great turmoil. Nearly all Satrapies revolted. It was strategically crucial to prevent Median rebel Phraortes from contacting Vahyazdata another rebel who controlled Persia.
It was winter and a group of Achaemenid soldiers headed by Hydarnes had already secured mountain passes between Media and the Persian heartland. On Jan, 12 Median army attacked Hydarnes forces in Maru near Mehriz, 30km south of the city of Yazd. While the count of dead and captives on two sides is not very reliable, Hydarnes retreated to Kampanda and controlled the road between Pasargadae and Gabae at a defensive position. Account of this battle has been stated by king Dariush in the Bisotoun Inscription.
General Vaumisa was sent by Dariush to the north to suppress the rebellion in Armenia. He won a victory on Dec, 31, 522 B.C. but he did not continue north probably because of weather conditions and the fact that his primary task was to prevent rebels from joining force with each other.
Later an Armenian commander named Dadarshi advanced into Armenia and defeated the rebels on May, 20 521 near Zuzahya, on 30 May at Tigra and on June 20 at Uyama. Dadarshi put an end to Armenian revolts until Dariush himself visited Armenia.
In the east, Dariush's father Hystaspes warded off an attack by Parthians. (Updated: Jan, 12, 2012)

Hystaspes Defeats Parthian rebels

Mar, 8, 521 BC

Lamassu or Winged Bulls with human heads at the Gate of All Nations in PerspolisThe army of Dariush the Great was made up of Median troops, thus they were not likely to attack their homeland. This was to the advantage of Phraortes the Parthian rebel king, who had captured the important city of Ecbatana in Dec, 522 B.C. The rebellion spread to the north to Armenia, to the west to Assyria and to the east to Sagartia and Parthia.
But a garrison commanded by Hystaspes, the Satrap of Parthia, also Dariush' father still held out in Parthia.
The rebel Parthian army and their allies, the Hyrcanians, attacked the Persian garrison, but they were defeated in the city of Vishpauzatish on March, 8 521 B.C. 6,346 Parthians were killed and 4,346 taken captive. Hystaspes not only repelled his enemies, but also started chasing them.
Hystaspes could always charge Phraortes from the rear with surprise attacks and skirmishes which slowed down Phraortes from attacking Dariush who was building a new army.
On May, 8th Dariush attacked Phraortes from the west and defeated him in Kunduru. After his victory, Parthia was pacified again. Dariush took Ecbatana and Phraortes fled to Parthia hoping to find support.
Hystaspes received reinforcements from Rhagae and his army engaged the Parthians near the Parthian town of Patigrabana on July, 11, 521 and struck a victory. Phraortes fled again but he was caught at Rhagae and was sent to Dariush. Dariush mutilated him and had him crucified at Ecbatana.
Hystaspes remained a great aid to his son: When Dariush visited Egypt and led an expedition to Scythia; Hystaspes stayed in Persia as regent. (Updated: Aug, 13, 2008)

Median Rebellion Suppressed By Dariush

May, 8, 521 BC

Embossed Dariush1 InscriptionWhen Cyrus the Great overthrew the Median empire in 550 BC, he captured Ecbatana (today's Hamedan). Ecbatana became the summer residence of the Achaemenid kings. 28 years later in December 522, the Median rebel Phraortes who descended from Cyaxares, and gained support in Sagartia, Parthia and Hyrcania, reoccupied Ecbatana and made it his capital. Meanwhile, There were insurrections also in Armenia, Elam, and Persis. Phraortes was defeated by the Persian general Hydarnes on Jan, 12, 521 but he managed to stand ground during the winter. However, Dariush I the Great defeated him on May, 8, 521 near Kangavar.
Dariush celebrated this event with a relief in Behistun Inscription along the road from Babylon to Ecbatana. Phraortes managed to escape to Rhagae (Tehran), where he was caught and crucified.
Another rebel named Tritantaechmes, the Sagartian leader called himself king and continued the rebellion, but was defeated by General Tahmaspada. Tritantaechmes was crucified in Arbela marking the last Median uprising. (Updated: Dec, 4, 2007)

The Battle of Raxa

May, 24, 521 BC

Relief from Perspolis: A subject presents a horse, one of many artifacts cut and smuggled out of Iran. Currently kept in FranceAfter the false king Smerdis was put to death by Dariush, another Persian usurper named Vahyazdata proclaimed himself the real heir of the Achaemenid throne and to be the real Smerdis. He seized the Persian Pasargadae palace and was able to conquer Arachosia. Dariush was busy with other rebels at the time and sent his trusted general Artavardiya to fight him.
Artavardiya defeated Vahyazdata on 24/25 May 521 BC in a battle at the city Raxa, in Persis, where 4404 rebels were killed. Vahyazdata and fled to the east to rearrange an army. His army was defeated again at the decisive battle which took place on 14 July 521 at Mount Parga, in Persis.
Vahyazdata was captured on July, 16th and was crucified. (Updated: Sep, 18, 2008)

Hystaspes Defeats Median Uprising

Jul, 11, 521 BC

Medes Relief PerspolisWhile Dariush was fighting Phraortes in Rhagae, his father Hystaspes was fighting Median rebels in Parthia but his forces were not enough. Then Dariush sent him a Persian army from Rhagae and as soon as the army arrives Hystaspes attacks the rebels and after two battles takes control back. Dariush in his notes expresses his satisfaction with his father who had killed 6,750 enemy soldiers and had captured 4,192 with a small army and without his father on Phraortes' tail Dariush could not have been very successful. Thinking about the organization and logistics needed for these battles, the Persian army did an extraordinary job. That must be the reason Dariush the great consistently mentions Ahouramazda's help. (Updated: Feb, 1, 2008)

Vahyazdata Of Persia Arrested

Jul, 15, 521 BC

Dariush Silver Coin SiglosOn March, 8th. Vivana in Arachosia defeated an army sent by Vahyazdata and the Satrap of Bactria Dadarshi stayed loyal to Dariush. In summer, all resistances against Dariush were being suppressed one after another. The Parthians were now trapped between Hystaspes and Dadarshi from the east and the army of Dariush from the west. Parthians surrendered on July, 11 and four days later Vahyazdata was arrested while on the run. Vahyazdata and his chief followers were soon crucified. Dariush was now the ruler of the Persian Empire and his coronation took place in Pasargadae. (Updated: Dec, 11, 2007)

Arakha Revolts In Babylon

Aug, 25, 521 BC

Achaemenid Soldier, an artistic rendering by Iman MalekiArakha claimed to be the son of Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon, proclaimed king on Aug, 25, 521 as Nebu Chadnezzar IV. He was indeed son of Haldita, an Armenian, living in Babylon. Dariush's bow carrier Intaphrenes was sent to suppress the revolt. According to the Behistun Inscription which provides valuable dates about the events Dariush the great says: "I sent my servant, a Persian named Intaphrenes to Babylon. Intaphrenes marched to Babylon. By the grace of Ahouramazda he overthrew the Babylonians and brought over the people to me."
The revolt was then suppressed on Nov, 27, 521 and Arakha was crucified. An embossed image of Arakha is depicted in Bisotoun together with other rebel leaders from almost every Satrapy. (Updated: Dec, 10, 2008)

Intaphrenes Takes Back Babylon

Nov, 27, 521 BC

Naghshe RostamIntaphrenes who was one of the noblemen that assisted Dariush in ascending to the throne was sent with an army to Babylon to suppress the uprising started on August, 25 leaded by Arkha, the son of an Armenian named Haldita Arkha claimed to be Nebu Chadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus, last king of the independent Babylon but he was briefly defeated on Nov, 11 and executed together with his top aids. Intaphrenes had the title of bow carrier which was similar to right hand of the king that could even recruit an army. This was the second rebellion in Babylon in the same year. The first one was suppressed by Dariush himself.
In Behistun Inscription Dariush insists that all these leaders gather people around themselves using lies and tricks and his message to the future generation is to be honest and not to lie. He ordered the content of the inscription be written in different places and in different languages. It is remarkable that his greatest achievement was to become victorious in nineteen different wars in less than two years in the vast empire and bring peace and security back to the country. He also mentions Ahouramazda's name a lot as the only one who helped him through these wars. (Updated: Dec, 17, 2007)

Last Revolt Against Dariush Silenced

Dec, 28, 521 BC

Bisotoun FradaA rebel leader in Margiana named Frada was the last one to be taken care of in a series of revolts against Dariush the Great. Because Margiana was not a very important part of the Achaemenid Empire, no action was undertaken until the end of the spring of 521 when the Medes had been defeated. In July the Parthian rebellion had been suppressed.
Dariush sent his loyal commander Dadarshi of Bactria to suppress the revolt. Dadarshi defeated Frada after a long march of 300 km through the desert of Karakum.
This was the last of 19 revolts in the same year that started the reign of Dariush. A version of Behistun Inscription text in Aramaic states 55.423 Margians were killed and 6.972 taken captive in the battle.
King Dariush states in the Bisotoun Inscription which was made immediately after the above mentioned events: The province called Margiana revolted against me. A certain Margian named Frada they made their leader. Then sent I against him a Persian named Dadarshi, my servant, who was satrap of Bactria, and I said unto him: 'Go smite that host which does not acknowledge me.' Then Dadarshi went forth with the army, and gave battle to the Margians. Ahouramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahouramazda my army utterly overthrew that rebel host. Of the twenty-third day of the month Achiyadia (December 28, 521) was the battle fought by them. (Updated: Dec, 15, 2007)

English-Persian Glossary
  • General Tahmaspada : ژنرال تهماسپاد
  • Achaemenid Empire : امپراطوري هخامنشي(Hakhamaneshi,Hakhamaneshian Dynasty) خاندان هخامنشيان Media_Files
  • Dariush the Great : داريوش کبير(Darius I) Media_Files
  • Cyrus the Great : کورش کبير(Cyrus II) Media_Files
  • Nebu Chadnezzar : نبو خادناصر(Nabo Khadnassar, Nebuchadnezzar)
  • Tritantaechmes : سيچانتخما تريتانتاسمس
  • Vishpauzatish : ويشپازاتيش
  • Ahouramazda : اهورامزدا(Ahuramazda, Ahura Mazda) Media_Files
  • Intaphrenes : ويندفرنه(Intaphernes) وندفرنه
  • Artavardiya : ارته ورديا
  • Patigrabana : پاتيگرابانا
  • Achaemenid : هخامنشي Media_Files
  • Vahyazdata : وهيزداته(Smerdis, Bardia) Media_Files
  • Pasargadae : پاسارگاد(Passargad) Media_Files
  • Achiyadia : اندوه خيز(Açiyâdiya,Azar,Andoohkhiz,Achiyadiya) آذر
  • Satrapies : ساترابها
  • Hystaspes : ويشت اسپه(Vishtaspa) هيستاسپس
  • Dariush I : داريوش اول(Dariush the Great, Darius) Media_Files
  • Arachosia : آراکوزيا رخج،آراخوزيا،هرانوتيش Media_Files
  • Phraortes : فرورتيش(Fravarta,Khshathrita,Farvartish) Media_Files
  • Nabonidus : نبونهيد Media_Files
  • Kampanda : کامپاندا
  • Armenian : ارمني Media_Files
  • Hydarnes : وي درنه(Vidarneh)
  • Ecbatana : اکباتان(Ekbatana,Hamedan) هکمتانه، هاگماتان Media_Files
  • Parthian : اشکاني پارتي Media_Files
  • Kangavar : کنگاور(Konkobar) Media_Files
  • Sagartia : سکان(Asagarta) زاغارت Media_Files
  • Cyaxares : کيخسرو(Uksatar,Kaykhosrau, Hovakhshathra) هوخشتره
  • Hyrcania : هيرکانيا گرگان،جرجان Media_Files
  • Margiana : مرو باستاني(Mehrdad Gerd,Margush) مارگيانا،مرگوش Media_Files
  • Dadarshi : دادارسي(Didarsi,Dadarsi)
  • Bisotoun : بيستون(Behistun,Bisotoon) بغستان Media_Files
  • Assyria : آشور(Ashur,Athura) Media_Files
  • Aramaic : آراميک
  • Parthia : پارت Media_Files
  • Smerdis : اسمرديس(Bardia) برديا Media_Files
  • Karakum : قره قوم(Qaraqum) کاراکوم
  • Scythia : سيتيا(Saka) سکاستان،سيستان
  • Bactria : باختر(Daxia,Bactra,Balkh,Bakhtar) بلخ Media_Files
  • Armenia : ارمنستان(Armanestan,Armenistan) Media_Files
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Vaumisa : واميسا
  • Haldita : هالديتا
  • Satrapy : ساترابي استان (تقسيمات کشوري) هخامنشي
  • Kunduru : کوندورو(Kundurush)
  • Babylon : بابل Media_Files
  • Zuzahya : زوزاهيا(Zuzza)
  • Dariush : داريوش(Darius) Media_Files
  • Hamedan : همدان(Ecbatana,Hamadan) هکمتانه Media_Files
  • Margian : مروي
  • Vivana : ويوانا
  • Persia : ايران Media_Files
  • Tehran : تهران(Teheran, Tahran) طهران Media_Files
  • Arbela : اربيل(Erbil, Arbil) Media_Files
  • Rhagae : ري(Ray, Rey) شهر ري Media_Files
  • Persis : پارسه(Fars) فارس Media_Files
  • Mehriz : مهريز(Marush)
  • Satrap : ساتراپ‌ استاندار قديم‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Arakha : ارخه(Nebuchadnezzar 4th)
  • Media : سرزمين ماد Media_Files
  • Cyrus : کورش(Kurosh, Kourosh, Koresh) Media_Files
  • Egypt : مصر(Al Mesr) Media_Files
  • Tigra : تيگرا
  • Uyama : اوياما
  • Gabae : گبه
  • Parga : پارگا
  • Arkha : ارخا(Nidintu-Bel)
  • Medes : مادها(Media, Mada) Media_Files
  • Frada : فرادا Media_Files
  • Yazd : يزد Media_Files
  • Raxa : رکسا رخسا
  • Maru : مارو(Marush)
  • Elam : ايلام(Ilam) Media_Files

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