The Iranian History 331 BC


Alexander Reaches Tigris

Sep, 3, 331 BC

Bust AlexanderWhile Dariush 3 was preparing for the battle in Gaugamela, Alexander and his forces after allowing his men to rest near Carrhae reached Tigris. Meanwhile Mazaeus' army joined forces with Dariush 3 and was sent on ahead to demolish the crop and food resources to make it inconvenient for Alexander, therefore putting the entire area to the east of Tigris on fire as if they were the invading army. The Macedonians crossed the river with little difficulty as planned by Dariush 3 who looked completely in command of the situation and waiting for the victory. But on Sep, 30, there was an eclipse of the moon right after sunset which was considered a disaster for Persia. It is very possible that priests were bribed to create panic among soldiers. (Updated: Dec, 22, 2007)

Battle Of Gaugamela Lost To Alexander

Oct, 1, 331 BC

An ivory relief sculpted in the 18th century shows Achaemenid Dariush III at Gaugamela battle lost to Macedonian Alexander in 331 B.C. New findings show that this battle was never fought, ending in peace because of a meteorite considered a divine sign.Alexander had set spies all over Persia. After the eclipse of the moon was visible on Sep, 20 morals were low on the Persian side as it was considered a sign of defeat. Now there was a superstitious air created that noticed a meteor flash on Sep, 23 which was considered another bad luck for Persians. The signs were clear just like in the battle of Halys in 585 B.C.; Dariush 3rd sent a courier to Alexander to offer peace and the land to the east of Euphrates but Alexander rejected the offer. This was also a source of disgrace for the Persian king as he was considered a coward among his own people. Alexander was 40 kilometers away from the battleground marching forward rapidly when the Persians became ready for a defeat as Astronomical Diaries reported a "fall of fire". Mazaeus' men reported Alexander setting camp 10 kilometers away from the Persian army. There are no credible accounts of the battle itself other than Dariush 3 deserting the battlefield and thus letting his people lose the fight. This was the second battle fought by Dariush 3 against Alexander after Issus.
An alternative narration:
Any state within the realm of the Achaemenid Empire was regarded to be part of the supreme state of Iran; thus Greece and Macedonia were within the realm but for a person to ascend to Achaemenid royalty an engagement had to be made to establish a royal bond, which was formed by Alexander's mother.
Every year a festival would be held where apart from Satraps, independent state kings from Egypt to China would send their ambassadors with a unique gift to Shahanshah; the King of Kings. On one occasion a Greek King offered his daughter to the supreme king. Her name was Olympias and Dariush 3, Achaemenid king at the time accepted her but then due to her impolite behavior, he decided to get rid of her not knowing that she became pregnant. Dariush 3 sent Olympias as a gift to Phillip of Macedon who married her Knowing that she was bearing the child of Dariush 3. Phillip kept Alexander's lineage a secret until he grew older.
When Alexander had knowledge of his real father, he decided it was his right to claim his title as a royal Achaemenid and began his campaign to fight for the throne. First reluctant to accept a grown up Alexander to take his position Dariush confronted Alexander in a war at Gaugamela. Nearing the end of this confrontation, Alexander received a letter from Dariush 3 calling him his son and requesting that he married his daughter. Alexander followed his real father's instructions, adopted customs of an Achaemenid king and continued to rule the kingdom like his predecessors.
Alexander's Greek generals became increasingly aggravated over his decision to remain in the Achaemenid palaces, not returning to Macedon with the royal treasury. Furthermore he adopted Dariush advisors over his Greek Macedonians and then requested his generals to integrate into the Achaemenid administration, to become satraps in the provinces of the kingdom and to take a wife there.
Alexander's wife Queen Statira was barren. Alexander married again, this time to Roxana, the daughter of a Bactrian nobleman. At this point distrust had grown between Alexander and his generals due to maintaining Iranian policies like his Achaemenid predecessors. This led to assassination attempts from his Greek generals until a successful poisoning of wine led to his death near Babylon in 323 B.C. Soon after, a power struggle began on the title; the next king of all kings. Having conveniently planned Alexander's murder, Cassander took the throne as ruler of Iran. Shortly after Alexander's death, Roxana gave birth to a boy who would become heir to the throne. When the boy reached the age of 12, Cassander ordered his death.
Which version of this story do you believe? This topic is open for discussion. (Updated: Jun, 29, 2010)

English-Persian Glossary
  • Shahanshah : شاهنشاه(Shah of Shahs) Media_Files
  • Achaemenid : هخامنشي Media_Files
  • Dariush 3 : داريوش سوم(Dariush III,Darab) داراب Media_Files
  • Cassander : كاسندر
  • Gaugamela : گاوگمل Media_Files
  • Macedonia : مقدونيه
  • Euphrates : فرات(Euphrates River) رود فرات Media_Files
  • Mazaeus : مازئوس(Maziar) Media_Files
  • Statira : استاتيرا(Stateira) Media_Files
  • Macedon : مقدونيه
  • Iranian : ايراني‌ اهل‌ ايران‌ ، وابسته‌به‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Babylon : بابل Media_Files
  • Dariush : داريوش(Darius) Media_Files
  • Carrhae : کرهه(Harran,Oshroene) حران Media_Files
  • Persia : ايران Media_Files
  • Greece : يونان(Ionia,Yunan) Media_Files
  • Roxana : رکسانا(Roshanak, Roxanne) روشنک، رخشانک Media_Files
  • Tigris : دجله(Dijlah, Dicle, Hiddekel) Media_Files
  • Egypt : مصر(Al Mesr) Media_Files
  • China : چين Media_Files
  • Issus : ايسوس Media_Files
  • Halys : رود هاليس
  • Greek : يوناني(Ionian) Media_Files
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files

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