• Section: Language /Monday 13th October 2014

    Alphabetic Index : A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    Search β):
    Matches:Proto-Indo-Iranian

    * Proto-Indo-Iranian *

    نیاهندوایرانی


    Iranian_Flag_Hand_Love_Heart.jpg
    (Wikipedia) - Proto-Indo-Iranian language   (Redirected from Proto-Indo-Iranian) Indo-European topics
    Part of a series on
    Languages
    • List of Indo-European languages
    • Historical
      • Albanian
      • Armenian
      • Balto-Slavic (Baltic • Slavic)
      • Celtic (Insular Celtic)
      • Germanic
      • Hellenic (Greek)
      • Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan • Iranian)
      • Italic (Romance)
    • Extinct:
      • Anatolian
      • Tocharian
      • Paleo-Balkan (Dacian • Thracian • Illyrian • Phrygian)
    • Reconstructed
    • Proto-Indo-European language
    • Phonology: Sound laws Accent Ablaut
    • Grammar:
      • Vocabulary
      • Root
      • Verbs
      • Nouns
      • Pronouns
      • Numerals
      • Particles
    • Other
      • Proto-Anatolian
      • Proto-Armenian
      • Proto-Germanic (Proto-Norse)
      • Proto-Celtic
      • Proto-Italic
      • Proto-Greek
      • Proto-Balto-Slavic (Proto-Slavic)
      • Proto-Indo-Iranian (Proto-Iranian)
    Philology
    • important text corpora
    • Hittite texts
    • Hieroglyphic Luwian
    • Linear B
    • Rigveda
    • Avesta
    • Homer
    • Behistun
    • Gaulish epigraphy
    • Latin epigraphy
    • Runic epigraphy
    • Ogam
    • Gothic Bible
    • Armenian Bible
    • Slanting Brahmi
    • Old Irish glosses
    Peoples and societies
    • Reconstructed
      • Proto-Indo-Europeans
      • Homeland
      • Society
      • Religion
    • Historical
    • Bronze Age
      • Anatolians
      • Armenians
      • Mycenaean Greeks
      • Indo-Iranians
    • Iron Age:
      • Indo-Aryans
      • Iranians (Scythians • Persians • Medes)
      • Celts (Gauls • Celtiberians • Insular Celts)
      • Hellenic peoples
      • Italic peoples
      • Germanic peoples
      • Paleo-Balkans/Anatolia: (Thracians  • Dacians • Illyrians • Phrygians)
    • Middle Ages:
    Archaeology
    • Indo-European migrations
    • Chalcolithic
      • Domestication of the horse
      • Corded ware (Baden • Middle Dnieper )
      • Cucuteni
      • Dnieper-Donets
      • Samara
      • Sredny Stog
      • Khvalynsk
      • Maykop
      • Kurgan culture (Kurgan • Cernavodă • Yamna • Kemi Oba)
      • Funnelbeaker
    • Bronze Age
      • Chariot
      • Andronovo
      • Afanasevo
      • Catacomb
      • Sintashta
      • Srubna
      • Beaker
      • Tumulus
      • Unetice
      • Urnfield
      • Lusatian
      • Nordic Bronze Age
      • Terramare
      • BMAC
      • Trzciniec
      • Yaz
      • Gandhara grave
    • Iron Age
      • Thraco-Cimmerian
      • Chernoles
      • Colchian
      • Painted Grey Ware
      • Northern Black Polished Ware
      • Hallstatt
      • Jastorf
    Religion and mythology
    • Reconstructed
      • Proto-Indo-European religion
      • Proto-Indo-Iranian religion
    • Historical
      • Hittite
      • Vedic
      • Persian mythology/ Ossetian/Zoroastrianism
      • Paleo-Balkans
      • Armenian
      • Germanic (Anglo-Saxon Continental Germanic Norse)
      • Latvian/Lithuanian
      • Slavic
    • v
    • t
    • e

    Proto-Indo-Iranian is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Indo-Iranians, are assumed to have lived in the late 3rd millennium BC, and are often connected with the early Andronovo archaeological horizon.

    Proto-Indo-Iranian was a Satem language, likely removed less than a millennium from the late Proto-Indo-European language, and in turn removed less than a millennium from the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda. It is the ancestor of the Indo-Aryan languages, the Iranian languages, the Dardic languages and the Nuristani languages.

    Contents
    • 1 Descriptive phonology
      • 1.1 Two palatal series
      • 1.2 Laryngeal
      • 1.3 Accent
    • 2 Historical phonology
    • 3 Subsequent sound changes
    • 4 See also
    • 5 Notes
    • 6 Bibliography

    Descriptive phonology Proto-Indo-Iranian consonant segments Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Laryngeal dental/

    alveolar

    post-

    alveolar

    first second Plosive

    voiceless

    voiced aspirated Fricative

    voiceless

    voiced Nasal Liquid Semivowel
    *p *t *k  
    *b *d *g  
    *bʰ *dʰ *ĵʰ *ǰʰ *gʰ  
    *s *H
    (*z) (*ž)  
    *m *n  
    *l *r *r̥  
    *y *w  
    PII vowel segments High Low
    *i *ī         *u *ū
        *a *ā    

    In addition to the vowels, *H, and *r̥ could function as the syllabic core.

    Two palatal series

    Proto-Indo-Iranian is hypothesized to contain two series of stops or affricates in the palatal to postalveolar region. The following table shows the most common reflexes and origins of the two series (Proto-Iranian is the hypothetical ancestor to the Iranian languages, including Avestan and Old Persian):

    PIE PII Sanskrit Proto-Iranian Avestan Old Persian Nuristani
    *k̂ ś () *ts s θ ċ () / š
    j () *dz z d j () / z
    *ĝʰ *ĵʰ h ()
    *k/kʷ c č č č
    *g/gʷ j () ǰ ǰ ǰ / ž
    *gʰ/gʷʰ *ǰʰ h ()
    Laryngeal

    Proto-Indo-European is usually hypothesized to have three to four laryngeal consonants, each of which could occur in either syllabic or non-syllabic position. In Proto-Indo-Iranian, the laryngeals merged as one phoneme /*H/. Beekes suggests that some instances of this /*H/ survived into Avestan as unwritten glottal stops.

    Accent

    Like Proto-Indo-European and Vedic Sanskrit (and also Avestan, though it was not written down), Proto-Indo-Iranian had a pitch accent, indicated by an acute accent over the accented vowel.

    Historical phonology

    The most distinctive phonological change separating Proto-Indo-Iranian from Proto-Indo-European is the collapse of the ablauting vowels *e, *o, *a into a single vowel, Proto-Indo-Iranian *a (but see Brugmann''s law). Grassmann''s law, Bartholomae''s law, and the Ruki sound law were also complete in Proto-Indo-Iranian.

    A fuller list of some of the hypothesized sound changes from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranian follows:

    • The Satem shift, consisting of two sets of related changes. The PIE palatals *k̂ *ĝ *ĝʰ are fronted or affricated, eventually resulting in PII *ĉ, *ĵ, *ĵʰ, while the PIE labiovelars *kʷ *gʷ *gʷʰ merge with the velars *k *g *gʰ.
    PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
    *k̂m̥tóm *ĉatám śatám satəm centum "hundred"
    *ĝónu *ĵā́nu jā́nu zānu genu "knee"
    *ĝʰéi-mn̥ *ĵʰimá- himá- zima- hiems "winter" / "snow"
    *kʷó- *ká- ká- quis "who?, what?"
    *gʷou- *gau- go gau- bos, bovis "cow"
    *gʷʰormó- *gʰarmá- gharmá- garəma- formus "warmth, heat"
    • The PIE syllabic liquids *l̥, *r̥ merge as *r̥.
    PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
    *wĺ̥kʷo- *wŕ̥ka- *vŕ̥ka- vəhrka- lupus "wolf"
    • The PIE syllabic nasals *m̥ *n̥ merge with *a.
    PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
    *k̂m̥tóm *ĉatám śatám satəm centum "hundred"
    *mn̥tó- *matá matá- mens, mentis "thinking"
    • Bartholomae''s law: an aspirate immediately followed by a voiceless consonant becomes voiced stop + voiced aspirate. In addition, dʰ + t > dzdʰ.
    PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
    *ubʰto- *ubdʰa- ubdaēna "woven" / "made of woven material"
    *urdʰto- *urdzdʰa- vr̥ddʰá- vrzda- "complete/mature"
    *augʰ-tá- *augdʰá- *óhate *augda "he said"
    • The Ruki rule: *s is retracted to *š when immediately following *r *r̥ *u *k or *i. Its allophone *z likewise becomes *ž.
    PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
    *wers- *warš- varṣman- "summit"
    *pr̥sto- *pr̥šta- pr̥ṣṭhá- paršta "back" / "backbone"
    *ǵeus- *ĵauš- joṣati zaošō "taste"
    *kʷsep- *kšap- (< *ksep) kṣāp xšap "darkness"
    *wis- *wiš- viṣa- viša- "poison"
    *nisdo- *nižda- nīḍa- "nest"
    • Before a dental occlusive, *ĉ becomes *š and *ĵ becomes *ž. *ĵʰ also becomes *ž, with aspiration of the occlusive.
    PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan
    *h₂ok̂tṓ *oĉtṓ *aštā́ aṣṭaú ašta "eight"
    *h₃mr̥ĝt- *mr̥ĵd- *mr̥žd- mr̥ḍīká- mərəžḍīka "wiped away" / "pardon"
    *uĝʰtó- *uĵʰtó- *uždʰá- ūḍhá- "carried"
    • The sequence *ĉs was simplified to *šš.
    PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
    *h₂ék̂s- *áĉs- *ášš- ákṣa- aši- axis "shoulder" / "axle"
    • The "second palatalization" or "law of palatals": *k *g *gʰ develop palatal allophones *č *ǰ *ǰʰ before the front vowels *i, *e.
    PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan
    *kʷe *ke *ča ca ča "and"
    *gʷíh₃weti *gíh₃weti *ǰī́wati jī́vati jvaiti "lives"
    *gʷʰénti *gʰénti *ǰʰánti hánti jainti "slays"
    • Brugmann''s law: *o in an open syllable lengthens to *ō.
    PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
    *deh₃tór-m *deh₃tṓr-m *dātā́ram dātā́ram dātāram dator "giver" (acc. sg.)
    • The vowels *e *o merge with *a. Similarly, *ē, *ō merge with *ā. This has the effect of giving full phonemic status to the second palatal series *č *ǰ *ǰʰ.
    PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
    *kʷe *ča (< *če) ca ča "and"
    *gʷʰormó- *gʰarmá- gharmá- garəma- "heat"
    *bʰréh₂tēr *bʰrā́tār bhrā́tā brātā "brother"
    *wōkʷs *wākš vāk vāxš "voice"
    • In certain positions, laryngeals were vocalized to *i. This preceded the second palatalization.
      • Following a consonant, and preceding a consonant cluster
    PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
    *ph₂trei *pitrai pitre piθrai "father" (dative singular)
    • Following a consonant and word-final
    PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
    *-medʰh₂ *-madʰi -mahi -madi (1st person plural middle ending)
    • The Indo-European laryngeals all merged into one phoneme *H, which may have been a glottal stop. This was probably contemporary with the merging of *e and *o with *a.
    PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
    *ph₂tér *pHtā́ pitā́ ptā "father" (nominative singular)
    • According to Lubotsky''s Law, *H disappeared when followed by a voiced nonaspirated stop and another consonant:
    PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
    *bʰeh₂g- *bʰag- ( < *bʰaHg- ) bʰag- baxša "distribute"

    Subsequent sound changes

    Among the sound changes from Proto-Indo-Iranian to Indo-Aryan is the loss of the voiced sibilant *z, among those to Iranian is the de-aspiration of the PIE voiced aspirates.

    Proto-Indo-European and Indo-Iranian Phonological Correspondences PIE OInd/VS Av PIE OInd/VS Av
    *p > p p *ph̥atēr "father" pitā́ "father" pitar- "father"
    *b > b b *bel- "strong" bálam "strength" -
    *bh > bh b *bhréhatēr "brother" bhrā́tār- "brother" brātar- "brother
    *t > t t *tuhxóm "thou" tuvám "thou" tvəm "thou"
    *d > d d *doru "wood" dā́ru "wood" dāru- "wood"
    *dh > dh d *dhohxneha- "grain" dhānā́- "grain" dāna- "grain"
    *k̂ > ś s *dék̂m̥ "ten" dáśa "ten" dasa "ten"
    > j z *ĝónu "knee" jā́nu "knee" zānu- "knee"
    *ĝh > h z *ĝhimós "cold" himá- "cold, frost" zəmaka- "winterstorm"
    *k > k ~ c x ~ č *kruharós "bloody" krūrá- "bloody" xrūra- "bloody"
    *téket "may he run" - tačat̰ "may he run"
    *g > g ~ j g ~ ǰ *haéuges- "strength" ójas- "strength" aoǰah "strength"
    *haugrós "strong" ugrá- "strong" ugra- "strong"
    *gh > gh ~ h g ~ ǰ *dl̥hxghós "long" dīrghá- "long" darəga- "long"
    *dlehxghistos "longest" - draǰišta- "longest"
    *kw > k ~ c k ~ č *kwós "who" káḥ "who" kō "who"
    *kwe "and" ca "and" ́ča "and"
    *gw > g ~ j g ~ ǰ *gwou- "cow" gav- "cow" gau- "cow"
    *gwih3uós "alive" jīvá- "alive" OPer: ǰīva

    - "living"

    *gwh > gh ~ h g ~ ǰ *gwhnénti "strike" (pl.) ghnánti "strike" (pl.) -
    *gwhénti "strikes" hánti "strikes" ǰainti "strikes"
    *s > s s ~ h *septm̥ "seven" saptá "seven" hapta "seven"
    *asti "is" asti "is" asti "is"
    *i̥ > y y *i̥ugóm "yoke" yuga''m "yoke" yuga- "yoke"
    *u̥ > v v *u̥éĝheti "drives, rides" váhati "drives" vazaiti "travels"
    *m > m m *méhatēr "mother" mātár- "mother" mātar- "mother"
    *n > n n *nos "us" nas "us" nō "us"
    *l > l ~ r r *kweleti "moves" carati "moves" caraiti "moves"
    *r > r r *bhrehatēr "brother" bhrā́tār- "brother" brātar- "brother
    *n̥ > a a *n̥- "un-" a- "un-" a- "un-"
    *m̥ > a a *k̂m̥tóm "hundred" s''atám "hundred" satəm "hundred"
    *l̥ > ərər *u̥l̥kwos "wolf" vĺ̥ka- "wolf" vəhrka- "wolf"
    *r̥ > ərər *k̂r̥d- "heart" hŕ̥d- "heart" zərəd- "heart"
    *i > i i *linékwti "leaves" riṇákti "leaves" irinaxti "releases"
    *e > a a *dék̂m̥ "ten" dáśa "ten" dasa "ten"
    > ā ā *hanḗr "man" nā "man" nā "man"
    *a > a a *haéĝeti "drives" ájati "drives" azaiti "drives"
    > ā ā *méhatēr "mother" mātā́ "mother" mātar- "mother"
    *o > a ~ ā a ~ ā *ĝómbhos "tooth, peg" jā́mbha- "tooth, tusk" -
    *ĝónu "knee" jānu "knee" zānu- "knee"
    > ā ā *dhohxneha- "grain" dhānā́- "grain" dāna- "grain"
    *u > u u *iugóm "yoke" yugám "yoke" yuga- "yoke"
    > ū ū *mū́s "mouse" mū́ṣ- "mouse" NPer mūs "mouse"
    *h1 > *h1ésti "is" ásti "is" asti "is"
    *h2 > *h2r̥tk̂os "bear" r̥''kṣa- "bear" arəša- "bear"
    *h3 > *h3ókws(i) "eye" ákṣi "eye" aši "eye"
    *h4 > *h4órĝhis "testicle" - ərəzi- "testicle"
    Proto-Indo-Iranian Old Iranian (OP, Av) Old Indic/Vedic Sanskrit
    *aĉwa- ("horse") Av, OP aspa aśva
    *bʰag- OP baj- (bāji; "tribute") bhag- (bhaga)
    *bʰrātr- ("brother") OP brātar bhrātṛ
    *bʰūmī ("earth", "land") OP būmi bhūmī
    *martya ("mortal, "man") OP martya martya
    *māsa ("moon") OP māha māsa
    *wāsara ("early") OP vāhara ("spring") vāsara ("morning")
    *ṛta ("truth") Av aša, OP arta ṛta
    *draugʰ- ("falsehood") Av druj, OP draug- druh-
    *sauma "pressed (juice)" Av haoma soma

    Tags:Anatolia, Anatolian, Archaeology, Armenian, Avesta, Balkan, Bible, Bronze Age, Cimmerian, Europe, Gandhara, Greek, Hittite, India, Iranian, Medes, Middle Ages, Old Persian, Persia, Persian, Proto-Indo-Iranian, Proto-Iranian, Roman, Romance, Samara, Sanskrit, Scythians, Vedic, Wikipedia


    See Also:Proto-Indo-Iranian language



    Add definition or comments on Proto-Indo-Iranian

    Your Name / Alias:
    E-mail:
    Definition / Comments
    neutral points of view
    Source / SEO Backlink:
    Anti-Spam Check
    Enter text above
    Upon approval, your definition will be listed under: Proto-Indo-Iranian