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    * National Assembly of South Korea *

    مجلس ملی کره جنوبی

    (Wikipedia) - National Assembly (South Korea)   (Redirected from National Assembly of South Korea) National Assembly of the Republic of Korea 대한민국 국회 大韓民國國會 Daehan-min-guk Gukhoe Type Type Leadership SpeakerVice SpeakerVice Speaker Structure Seats Political groupsElectionsVoting systemLast election Meeting place Website
    19th National Assembly
    Kang Chang-hee, NFP since 3 July 2012
    Lee Byung-suk, NFP since 3 July 2012
    Park Byeong-seug, NPAD since 3 July 2012
         Saenuri (156)      NPAD (130)      Progressive (6)      Justice (5)      Independents (3)
    Parallel voting: First-past-the-post (single member constituencies) Party-list proportional representation (national lists)
    11 April 2012
    National Assembly Building, Seoul (37°31′55.21″N 126°54′50.66″E / 37.5320028°N 126.9140722°E / 37.5320028; 126.9140722)
    Hangul Hanja Revised Romanization McCune–Reischauer National Assembly Hangul Hanja Revised Romanization McCune–Reischauer
    National Assembly
    대한민국 국회
    Daehan-min-guk Gukhoe
    Taehan-min-guk Kukhoe

    The National Assembly, officially the National Assembly of the Republic of Korea, is the 300-member unicameral legislature of the Republic of Korea (South Korea). The latest legislative elections were held on 11 April 2012. Single-member constituencies comprise 246 of the assembly''s seats, while the remaining 54 are allocated by proportional representation. Members serve four-year terms.

    The unicameral assembly consists of at least 200 members according to the Constitution. In 1990 the assembly had 299 seats, 224 of which were directly elected from single-member districts in the general elections of April 1988. Under applicable laws, the remaining seventy-five representatives were appointed by the political parties in accordance with a proportional formula based on the number of seats won in the election. By law, candidates for election to the assembly must be at least thirty years of age. As part of a political compromise in 1987, an earlier requirement that candidates have at least five years'' continuous residency in the country was dropped to allow Kim Dae-jung, who had spent several years in exile in Japan and the United States during the 1980s, to return to political life. The National Assembly''s term is four years. In a change from the more authoritarian Fourth Republic and Fifth Republic (1972–80 and 1980–87, respectively), under the Sixth Republic, the assembly cannot be dissolved by the president.

    • 1 Current composition
    • 2 Structure and appointment
      • 2.1 Speaker
      • 2.2 Negotiation groups
      • 2.3 Legislative process
      • 2.4 Election
    • 3 Reform proposals
    • 4 Legislative violence
    • 5 History
      • 5.1 First Republic
      • 5.2 Second Republic
      • 5.3 Third Republic
      • 5.4 Fourth Republic
      • 5.5 Fifth Republic
      • 5.6 Sixth Republic
    • 6 Members
    • 7 See also
    • 8 References

    Current composition See also: South Korean legislative election, 2012 and List of members of the 19th National Assembly of South Korea
    Parties in the 19th Assembly of South Korea (as of 15 Aug 2013) Group Floor leader Seats  % of seats
      Saenuri Party Lee Wan-Goo 158 (+1) 52
      New Politics Alliance for Democracy Park Young-sun 130 +3 43.33
      Unified Progressive Party Oh Byeong-yun 5 (-8) 1.67
      Justice Party Sim Sang-jeong 5 - 1.67
    Independents 2 - 0.67
    Total 300 100.0


  • Negotiation groups can be formed by 20 or more members. There are currently 2 negotiation groups in the Assembly, formed by Saenuri Party and Democratic Party.
  • Kang Chang-hee was elected as Speaker on July 2. After his election, Kang gave up his Saenuri Party membership under the National Assembly Act, and the ruling party now occupies 152 out of the 300 seats in the legislature. Of the 283 lawmakers who participated in the election, in which Kang was the sole candidate, 195 voted for him.
  • Change in seat number since last election noted in brackets.
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    Structure and appointment Speaker

    The constitution stipulates that the assembly is presided over by a Speaker and two Deputy Speakers, who are responsible for expediting the legislative process. The Speaker and Deputy Speakers are elected in a secret ballot by the members of the Assembly, and their term in office is restricted to two years. The Speaker is independent of party affiliation, and the Speaker and Deputy Speakers may not simultaneously be government ministers.

    Negotiation groups

    Parties that hold at least 20 seats in the assembly form floor negotiation groups (Korean: 교섭단체, RR: gyoseop danche), which are entitled to a variety of rights that are denied to smaller parties. These include a greater amount of state funding and participation in the leaders'' summits that determine the assembly''s legislative agenda.

    Legislative process

    To introduce a bill, a legislator must present the initiative to the Speaker with the signatures of at least ten other members of the assembly. The bill must then be edited by a committee to ensure that the bill contains correct and systematic language. It can then be approved or rejected by the Assembly.

    Election See also: Elections in South Korea

    Since the promulgation of the March 1988 electoral law, the assembly has been elected every four years through a Supplementary Member system, meaning that some of the members are elected from constituencies according to the system of First Past the Post, while others are elected at a national level through Proportional Representation. As of 2012, 246 members represent constituencies, while 54 were elected from PR lists. In contrast to elections to the Assembly, presidential elections occur once every five years, and this has led to frequent situations of minority government and legislative deadlock.

    Reform proposals

    A proposal to lower the number of seats required to form a negotiation group to 15 was passed on 24 July 2000, but was overturned by the Constitutional Court later that month. In order to meet the quorum, the United Liberal Democrats, who then held 17 seats, arranged to "rent" three legislators from the Millennium Democratic Party. The legislators returned to the MDP after the collapse of the ULD–MDP coalition in September 2001.

    Legislative violence

    From 2004 to 2009, the assembly gained notoriety as a frequent site for legislative violence. The Assembly first came to the world''s attention during a violent dispute on impeachment proceedings for then President Roh Moo-hyun, when open physical combat took place in the assembly. Since then, it has been interrupted by periodic conflagrations, piquing the world''s curiosity once again in 2009 when members battled each other with sledgehammers and fire extinguishers. Images of the melee were broadcast around the world.

    HistorySouth Korean National Assembly in the 1980sSouth Korea Constitution
    This article is part of a series on the politics and government of South Korea
    • President (list)Park Geun-hye
    • Prime Minister (list)Jung Hong-won
    • Cabinet
    National Assembly
    • SpeakerKang Chang-hee
    • List of members
    • Constitutional Court
    • Supreme CourtChief Justice: Yang Sung-tae
    • National Election Commission
    • Recent elections
      • Presidential: 2002
      • 2007
      • 2012
      • Legislative: 2008
      • 2012
      • 2016
      • Local: 2006
      • 2010
      • 2014
      • By-elections: 2011
    • Political parties
      • Saenuri
      • NPAD
      • UPP
      • Justice
    Related topics
    • Korean reunification
    • Sunshine Policy
    • Administrative divisions
    • Human rights
    • Foreign relations
    • Other countries
    • Atlas

    Politics portal

    • v
    • t
    • e
    First Republic See also: First Republic of South Korea
    This section requires expansion. (May 2008)

    Elections for the assembly were held under UN supervision on 10 May 1948. The First Republic of South Korea was established on 17 July 1948 when the constitution of the First Republic was established by the Assembly. The Assembly also had the job of electing the President, and elected anti-communist Syngman Rhee as President on 10 May 1948.

    Under the first constitution, the National Assembly was unicameral. Under the second and third constitutions, the National Assembly became bicameral and consisted of the House of Commons and the Senate, but actually unicameral with the House of Commons because the House of Commons could not pass a bill to establish the Senate.

    Second Republic See also: Second Republic of South Korea
    This section requires expansion. (May 2008)

    During the short-lived Second Republic, the National Assembly was legal and practically bicameral.

    Third Republic See also: Third Republic of South Korea
    This section requires expansion. (May 2008)

    Since the reopen of the National Assembly in 1963 until today, it has been unicameral.

    Fourth Republic See also: Fourth Republic of South Korea
    This section requires expansion. (May 2008)
    Fifth Republic See also: Fifth Republic of South Korea
    This section requires expansion. (May 2008)
    Sixth Republic See also: Sixth Republic of South Korea
    This section requires expansion. (November 2009)
    Elections National Assembly The Majority The Minority President Position Party/Coalition Seats won Name Tenure Position
    13th (1988) Liberal PDP—RDP—NDRP 164 / 299 Democratic Justice Party Roh Tae-woo 1988—1993 Conservative
    Conservative DJP—RDP—NDRP 184 / 299 Peace Democratic Party  
    14th (1992) Conservative Democratic Liberal Party 149 / 299 (lack majority) Democratic Party (1991), Unification National Party Kim Young-sam 1993—1998 Conservative
    15th (1996) Liberal NCNP—ULD—Democrats 144 / 299 New Korea Party, United Democratic Party  
    Kim Dae-jung 1998—2003 Liberal
    16th (2000) Liberal MDP—ULD—DPP 134 / 273 (lack majority) Grand National Party  
    17th (2004) Liberal Uri Party 152 / 299 Grand National Party Roh Moo-hyun 2003—2008 Liberal
    18th (2008) Conservative Grand National Party 153 / 299 United Democratic Party, Liberty Forward Party, Pro-Park Coalition  
    Lee Myung-bak 2008—2013 Conservative
    19th (2012) Conservative Saenuri Party 152 / 300 Democratic United Party, Unified Progressive Party  
    Park Geun-hye 2013— Conservative
    • v
    • t
    • e
    Members of the National Assembly of South Korea
    • 1948–50
    • 1950–54
    • 1954–58
    • 1958–60
    • 1960–63
    • 1963–67
    • 1967–71
    • 1971–73
    • 1973–78
    • 1978–81
    • 1981–85
    • 1985–88
    • 1988–92
    • 1992–96
    • 1996–2000
    • 2000–04
    • 2004–08
    • 2008–12
    • 2012–
    See also Politics of South Korea Political parties in South Korea Elections in South Korea

    Tags:Administrative, Constitution, Elections, House of Commons, Japan, Judiciary, Kang Chang-hee, Korea, National Assembly of South Korea, Politics, Post, President, Prime Minister, Senate, Seoul, South Korea, South Korean, United States, Website, Wikipedia

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