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    توپولف


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    Tupolev officially ANTK imeni A.N. Tupoleva formerly OKB-156Russian aerospace design bureau that is a major producer of passenger airliners and military bombers. It originated in 1922 as a group within the U.S.S.R's Central Aero hydrodynamics Institute to develop military aircraft. Under Andrei Tupolev, it created the TB-1 (ANT-4) all-metal, cantilever-wing bomber (first flights 1925–26). After several years of confinement for political reasons, Tupolev was freed, and in 1943 he reestablished his team as the design bureau OKB-156. At the end of World War II, the bureau built the Tu-4 strategic bomber, a copy of the U.S. B-29. In the 1950s it produced the turboprop Tu-95 heavy bomber which became a Soviet mainstay, and the first Soviet jetliner, the Tu-104 (first flown 1955). Between the late 1950s and early '80s, it introduced new supersonic bombers, including the variable-wing Tu-22M and Tu-160, and airliners such as the Tu-114 turboprop, Tu-154 and Tu-144 supersonic transport in 1989 in honor of Tupolev (Wikipedia) - Tupolev
    This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2009)
    JSC Tupolev Type Industry Founded Founders Headquarters Key people Products Parent Website
    Division
    • Aerospace
    • Defense
    Moscow, Russia (October 22, 1922 (1922-10-22))
    Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev
    Moscow, Russia
    Nikolai Savitsky
    • Commercial airliners
    • Military aircraft
    United Aircraft Corporation
    tupolev.ru/en/

    Tupolev (Russian: Ту́полев, IPA: ) is a Russian aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Moscow, Russia. Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow. Known officially as Joint Stock Company Tupolev, it is the successor of the Tupolev OKB or Tupolev Design Bureau (OKB-156, design office prefix Tu) headed by the Soviet aerospace engineer A.N. Tupolev. The company celebrated its 90th anniversary on October 22, 2012. The Russian government merged Tupolev with Mikoyan, Ilyushin, Irkut, Sukhoi, and Yakovlev as a new company named United Aircraft Corporation.

    The capabilities of PSC Tupolev include development, manufacturing and overhaul for both civil and military aerospace products such as aircraft and weapons systems. It is also active with missile and naval aviation technologies. More than 18,000 Tupolev aircraft were produced for the USSR and the Eastern Bloc.

    Contents

    History

    Tupolev OKB was founded by Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev in 1922. Its facilities are tailored for aeronautics research and aircraft design only, manufacturing is handled by other firms. It researched all-metal airplanes during the 1920s, based directly on the pioneering work already done by Hugo Junkers during World War I.

    Tupolev ANT-20 Maxim Gorky, the largest airplane of the 1930s, was used for Stalinist propaganda.

    The first successful all-metal airplane was built of corrugated sheet iron by the German engineer Hugo Junkers (the J-1) in 1915. With the J-3 of 1916 Junkers shifted to lighter construction using corrugated duralumin. In the aftermath of WWI and to evade the terms of the Versailles Treaty that prevented German companies from building warplanes Junkers founded a clandestine aircraft factory in the Moscow suburb of Fili in 1922. This factory was turned over to Tupolev in 1925. Russian sources usually refrain from making the link between Junkers and Tupolev. Tupolev was an able designer, but his first generation aircraft were heavily influenced by his early connection to Junkers. Among the notable results during Tupolev''s early period were two significant all-metal heavy bombers with corrugated duralumin skins, the ANT-4 twin-engined bomber which first flew in 1925 and the four-engined ANT-6 of 1932, from which such airplanes as the ANT-20 were derived (see Yefim Gordon & Vladimir Rigmant, OKB Tupolev. Hinckley, UK: Midland, 2005. pp. 22–28 & 30-34). Tupolev''s design approach in these two airplanes defined for many years the trends of heavy aircraft development, civil and military.

    During World War II, the twin-engined, all-metal Tu-2 was one of the best front-line bombers of the Soviets. Several variants of it were produced in large numbers from 1942. During the war it used wooden rear fuselages due to a shortage of metal.

    This was succeeded by the development of the jet-powered Tu-16 bomber, which used a sweptback wing for good subsonic performance.

    As turbojets were not fuel efficient enough to provide truly intercontinental range, the Soviets elected to design a new bomber, the Tu-20, more commonly referred to as the Tu-95. It, too, was based on the fuselage and structural design of the Tu-4, but with four colossal Kuznetsov NK-12 turboprop engines providing a unique combination of jet-like speed and long range. It became the definitive Soviet intercontinental bomber, with intercontinental range and jet-like performance. In many respects the Soviet equivalent of the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, it served as a strategic bomber and in many alternate roles, including reconnaissance and anti-submarine warfare.

    The Tu-16 was developed into the civil Tu-104, which was for some time the only jet-powered airliner due to the temporary grounding of the De Havilland Comet. The Tu-95 became the basis of the unique Tu-114 medium-to-long-range airliner, the fastest turboprop aircraft ever. One common feature found in many large subsonic Tupolev jet aircraft is large pods extending rearward from the trailing edge of the wings, holding the aircraft''s landing gear. These allow the aircraft to have landing gears made up of many large low-pressure tires, which are invaluable for use on the poor quality runways that were common in the Soviet Union at the time. For example the Tu-154 airliner, the Soviet equivalent of the Boeing 727, has 14 tyres, the same number as Boeing''s far larger 777–200.

    Even before the first flights of the Tu-16 and Tu-20/Tu-95, Tupolev was working on supersonic bombers, culminating in the unsuccessful Tu-98. Although that aircraft never entered service, it became the basis for the prototype Tu-102 (later developed into the Tu-28 interceptor) and the Tu-105, which evolved into the supersonic Tu-22 bomber in the mid-1960s. Intended as a counterpart to the Convair B-58 Hustler, the Tu-22 proved rather less capable, although it remained in service much longer than the American aircraft. Meanwhile the "K" Department was formed in the Design Bureau, with the task of designing unmanned aircraft such as the Tu-139 and the Tu-143 unmanned reconnaissance aircraft.

    Tu-144 supersonic airliner

    In the 1960s A. N. Tupolev''s son, A. A. Tupolev, became active with management of the agency. His role included the development of the world''s first supersonic airliner, the Tu-144, the popular Tu-154 airliner and the Tupolev Tu-22M strategic bomber. All these developments enabled the Soviet Union to achieve strategic military and civil aviation parity with the West.

    In the 1970s, Tupolev concentrated its efforts on improving the performance of the Tu-22M bombers, whose variants included maritime versions. It is the presence of these bombers in quantity that brought about the SALT I and SALT II treaties. Also the efficiency and performance of the Tu-154 was improved, culminating in the efficient Tu-154M.

    In the 1980s the design bureau developed the supersonic Tu-160 strategic bomber. Features include variable-geometry wings.

    Post-Soviet Era

    With the end of the Cold War, research work was concentrated on subsonic civil aircraft, mainly on operating economics and alternative fuels. The developments include fly-by-wire, use of efficient high-bypass turbofans and advanced aerodynamic layouts for the 21st century transport aircraft such as the Tu-204/Tu-214, Tu-330 and Tu-334.

    Among current Tupolev projects:

    On 19 August 2009, Tupolev announced that it had a contract with the Russian Defense Ministry to develop a new-generation strategic bomber which "will be a conceptually new plane based on the most advanced technologies".

    Directors Tupolev aircraft

    Many designs were developed by the design bureau. Those in production series may manufacture as many as 4,500 units as for the Tu-2. However many are also dead-ends or experimental, with as little as a single copy being produced. They were terminated by changing military or political situations. Many of these experimental variants enabled series production versions.

    Early aircraft Early piston-powered Experimental aircraft Bombers and other military typesTu-160, the last of the Soviet bombers Interceptors Airliners/transportTupolev Tu-154M. Unmanned aircraft Planned aircraft Boats Aerosledge

    Tags:1927, 1934, 1968, Administrative, American, Boeing, California, Cold War, Comet, Concorde, German, Ilyushin, Junkers, Maritime, Maxim, Moscow, Post, Pravda, Russia, Russian, Soviet, Soviet Union, Sukhoi, Tupolev, UK, USA, USSR, Versailles, WWI, Website, Wikipedia, World War I, World War II


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