• Login/Register
  • Alphabetic Index : A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    Search β):

    * Mashhad *



    Mashhad is the second largest city in Iran; located in north Iran which is a holy city for Shiite Muslims hosting the Shrine of Imam Reza. For centuries it has been an important trade centre along the caravan routes and highways of the Middle East. It was damaged in a Mongol attack in 1220 and was sacked by Turkmen and Uzbeks in the 16th-17th centuries. Nader Shah made Mashhad his capital.Mashhad means the place of martyrdom. Mashhad used to be a small village called Sanabad situated 24km away from Tus. In 808 when Harun ol-Rashid, Abbasi caliph, was marching against the insurrection of Rafi-ibn-Leith in Transoxiana, he became ill and died. He was buried under the palace of Hamid ibn Qahtabi. Several years later in 818 Imam Reza was martyred by Al-Ma'mun and was buried beside the grave of Harun after which the place was called as Mashhad al-Reza.After Mongol raids in 1220 and destruction of many large cities in Greater Khorassan territories, Mashhad remained relatively intact, becoming a migration center. As one of the main cities of the Timurid dynasty, in 1418 Shahrokh's wife funded the construction of an outstanding mosque beside the shrine, which is known as Goharshad Mosque.Shah Ismail I conquered Mashhad after the death of Hossein Bayghara and the decline of the Timurid dynasty. Mashhad was later captured by the Uzbeks until 1597 when Shah Abbas defeated them in several battles and drove them beyond the Oxus River. Mashhad saw its greatest glory under Nader Shah who made the city his capital. Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar conquered the Khorassan in 1796. In 1912, the sanctuary of the Imam Reza was bombed and plundered by Russian forces. (Wikipedia) - Mashhad For other uses, see Mashhad (disambiguation). Mashhad Maŝhad Country Province County Bakhsh Mashhad-Sanabad-Toos Government  • Mayor (Ŝahrdār) Area  • City  • Metro Elevation Population (2010)  • City  • Population Rank in Iran   Demonym Time zone  • Summer (DST) Website
    Motto: City of paradise (Shahre behesht)
    MashhadLocation of Mashhad in Iran
    Coordinates: 36°18′N 59°36′E / 36.300°N 59.600°E / 36.300; 59.600Coordinates: 36°18′N 59°36′E / 36.300°N 59.600°E / 36.300; 59.600
    Razavi Khorasan
    818 AD
    Sowlat Mortazavi
    850 km2 (330 sq mi)
    3,946 km2 (1,524 sq mi)
    985 m (3,232 ft)
    3,069,941 (Metropolitan) 3,131,586 (City itself) (2,011 Census)
    Over 20 million pilgrims and tourists per year
    Mashhadi, Mashadi, Mashdi (informal)
    IRST (UTC+03:30)
    IRDT (UTC+04:30)

    Mashhad (Persian: Maŝhad‎ ;  listen (help·info)) is the second most populous city in Iran and is the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province. It is located in the north east of the country close to the borders of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Its population is 3,131,586 . It was a major oasis along the ancient Silk Road connecting with Merv in the East.

    Mashhad is the hometown of some of the most significant Iranian literary figures and artists such as Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, the famous contemporary poet and Mohammad-Reza Shajarian, the traditional Iranian singer and composer. Mashhad is also known as the city of Ferdowsi, the Iranian poet of Shahnameh, which is considered to be the national epic of Iran. Ferdowsi and Akhavan Sales are both buried in Tus, an ancient city that is considered to be the main origin of the current city of Mashhad. The city is however most well known and respected for housing the tomb of Imam Reza, the eighth Shia Imam. Every year millions of pilgrims visit the Imam Reza shrine and pay their tributes to Imam Reza.


    History Etymology

    The name Mashhad comes from Arabic, meaning the place of martyrdom the place where Ali ar-Ridha (Persian, Imam Reza), the eighth Imam of Shia Muslims, was martyred and so his shrine was placed there.

    At the beginning of the 9th century (3rd century AH) Mashhad was a small village called Sanabad situated 24 km away from Tus. There was a summer palace of "Hamid ibn Qahtabi", the governor of Khorasan. In 808 when Harun al-Rashid, Abbasid caliph, was passing through there to settle down the insurrection of Rafi ibn al-Layth in Transoxania, he became ill and died. He was buried under the palace of Hamid ibn Qahtabi. Several years later in 818 Imam Ali al-Reza was martyred by Al-Ma''mun and was buried beside the grave of Harun.

    After this event this place was called as Mashhad al-Rida (the place of martyrdom of Ali al-Rida). Shias started visiting there for pilgrimage of his grave. By the end of the 9th century a dome was built on the grave and many buildings and Bazaars sprang up around it. During more than a millennium it has been devastated and reconstructed several times.

    It was not considered a great city until Mongol raids in 1220 which caused the destruction of many large cities in the Greater Khorasan territories, leaving Mashhad relatively intact. Thus the survivors of the massacres migrated to Mashhad. When the famous world traveller Ibn Battuta visited the town in 1333, he reported that it was a large town with abundant fruit trees, streams and mills. A great dome of elegant construction surmounts the noble mausoleum, the walls being decorated with colored tiles.

    Later on, during the Shahrokh era, it became one of the main cities of the Timurid dynasty. In 1418 his wife Goharshad funded the construction of an outstanding mosque beside the shrine, which is known as Goharshad Mosque. The mosque remains relatively intact to this date, its great size an indicator to the status the city held in the 15th century.

    Shah Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty, conquered Mashhad after the death of Husayn Bayqarah and the decline of the Timurid dynasty. Mashhad was later captured by the Uzbeks during the reign of Shah Abbas I, only to be retaken by the Shah Abbas in the year of 1597 after a long and severe struggle, defeating the Uzbeks in a great battle near Herat as well as managing to drive them beyond the Oxus River.

    Shah Abbas I wanted to encourage Iranians to go to Mashhad for pilgrimage, he himself is known to have walked from Isfahan to Mashhad. During the Safavid era Mashhad gained even more religious recognition, becoming the most important city of the Greater Khorasan as several Madrasah and other structures were built beside the shrine of the Imam Reza.

    Besides its religious significance, Mashhad has played an important political role as well. It saw its greatest glory under Nadir Shah, ruler of Iran from 1736 to 1747 and also a great benefactor of the shrine of the Imam Reza, making the city his capital. Mashhad was ruled by Shahrukh Afshar and remained the capital of the Afsharid dynasty during Zand dynasty until Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar conquered the then larger region of Khorasan in 1796.

    In 1912, the sanctuary of the Imam Reza was bombed by the Russian artillery fire, causing some damage, including to the golden dome, resulting in a widespread and persisting resentment in the Shiite Muslim world.

    1935 Imam Reza shrine rebellion Main article: Imam Reza shrine rebellion

    In 1935 a backlash against the modernizing, anti-religious policies of Reza Shah erupted in the Mashed shrine. Responding to a cleric who denounced the Shah''s heretical innovations, corruption and heavy consumer taxes, many bazaaris and villagers took refuge in the shrine, chanted slogans such as "The Shah is a new Yezid." For four full days local police and army refused to violate the shrine and the standoff was ended when troops from Azerbaijan arrived and broke into the shrine, killing dozens and injuring hundreds, and marking a final rupture between Shi''ite clergy and the Shah.

    1994 Imam Reza shrine bombing

    On June 20, 1994, an explosion from a bomb occurred in a prayer hall of the shrine of the Imam Reza The bomb that killed at least 25 people on June 20 in Mashhad exploded at Ashura. The Baluch terrorist, Ramzi Yousef, a Sunni Muslim turned Wahhabi, one of the main perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was found to be behind the plot. However, official state media blamed Mehdi Nahvi, a supposed member of the People''s Mujahedin of Iran (MKO) in order to prevent sectarian violence.

    Panoramic view of Mashhad CityGeography and demographics

    The city is located at 36.20º North latitude and 59.35º East longitude, in the valley of the Kashaf River near Turkmenistan, between the two mountain ranges of Binalood and Hezar-masjed. The city benefits from the proximity of the mountains, having cool winters, pleasant springs, mild summers, and beautiful autumns. It is only about 250 km (160 mi) from Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.

    The city is the administrative center of Mashhad County (or the Shahrestan of Mashhad) as well as the somewhat smaller district (Bakhsh) of Mashhad. The city itself, excluding parts of the surrounding Bakhsh and Shahrestan, is divided into 13 smaller administrative units, with a total population of more than 3 million.

    The vast majority of the Mashhadi people are ethnic Persians who form over 95% of the city''s population. Other ethnic groups include Kurdish and Turkmen people who have emigrated recently to the city from the North Khorasan province. The people of Mashhad who look like Asians are of Turkmen or Hazara descent.

    Among the non-Iranians, there are immigrant population of Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan. The Afghan immigrants have several neighborhoods around the city. One of the districts inhabited by Afghan immigrants is Golshahr.

    There are also over 20 million pilgrims who visit the city every year.


    Mashhad features a steppe climate (Köppen BSk) with hot summers and cool winters. The city only sees about 250 mm of precipitation per year, some of which occasionally falls in the form of snow. Mashhad also has wetter and drier periods with the bulk of the annual precipitation falling between the months of December and May. Summers are typically hot and dry, with high temperatures sometimes exceeding 35 °C (95 °F). Winters are typically cool to cold and somewhat damper, with overnight lows routinely dropping below freezing. Mashhad enjoys on average just under 2900 hours of sunshine per year.

    Climate data for Mashhad Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) Average high °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Record low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Mean monthly sunshine hours
    24 (75) 26 (79) 32 (90) 35.4 (95.7) 39.2 (102.6) 41.6 (106.9) 43.8 (110.8) 42.4 (108.3) 42 (108) 35.8 (96.4) 29.4 (84.9) 28.2 (82.8) 43.8 (110.8)
    7.2 (45) 9.2 (48.6) 13.9 (57) 20.8 (69.4) 26.6 (79.9) 32.2 (90) 34.4 (93.9) 33 (91) 28.9 (84) 22.3 (72.1) 15.4 (59.7) 9.7 (49.5) 21.1 (70)
    −3.8 (25.2) −2.1 (28.2) 2.6 (36.7) 8.2 (46.8) 12.2 (54) 16.2 (61.2) 18.5 (65.3) 16.2 (61.2) 11.5 (52.7) 6.1 (43) 1.7 (35.1) −1.9 (28.6) 7.1 (44.8)
    −27 (−17) −28 (−18) −13 (9) −7 (19) −1 (30) 4 (39) 10 (50) 5 (41) −1 (30) −8 (18) −16 (3) −25 (−13) −28 (−18)
    33 (1.3) 35.2 (1.386) 55.6 (2.189) 46.3 (1.823) 27.6 (1.087) 4.2 (0.165) 1.1 (0.043) 0.8 (0.031) 1.7 (0.067) 8.6 (0.339) 15.4 (0.606) 24.7 (0.972) 254.2 (10.008)
    149.1 147.3 161.2 198.6 279.2 341.7 366.1 358.7 304.5 247.4 187.5 151.1 2,892.4
    Religion See also: Imam Reza shrine

    Today the holy shrine and its museum holds one of the most extensive cultural and artistic treasuries of Iran, in particular manuscript books and paintings. Several important theological schools are associated with the shrine of the Eighth Imam.

    The second largest holy city in the world, Mashhad attracts more than 20 million tourists and pilgrims every year, many of whom come to pay homage to the Imam Reza shrine (the eighth Shi''ite Imam). It has been a magnet for travellers since medieval times. Thus, even as those who complete the pilgrimage to Mecca receive the title of Haji, those who make the pilgrimage to Mashhad—and especially to the Imam Reza shrine—are known as Mashtee, a term employed also of its inhabitants. It is thought that over 20 million Muslims a year make the pilgrimage to Mashhad.


    Mashhad is Iran''s second largest automobile production hub in Iran.The city’s economy is mainly on Dry fruits, an assortment of salted nuts, saffron, Iranian sweets like Gez and Sohaan, precious stones like agates, turquoise, intricately designed silver jewelry studded with rubies and emeralds, eighteen carat gold jewelry, perfumes, religious souvenirs, trench coats, scarves, termeh, carpets and rugs.

    Among the major industries in the city there is nutrition industries, clothing, leather, textiles, chemicals, steel and non-metallic mineral industries, construction materials factories, handicraft industry and metal industries.

    With more than 55% of hotels in Iran, Mashhad is the hub of tourism in Iran

    In the geography of tourism, religious places known as the most powerful hub to attract travelers around the world, every year 20 to 30 millions of pilgrims from Iran and more than 2 millions pilgrims and tourists from around the world come to Mashhad.

    Mashhad is one of the main producers of leather products in region.

    city''s International exhibition center is the second most active exhibition center after Tehran. Which due to proximity to Central Asian countries hosts dozens of international exhibitions each year.

    What is more, corporations such as Smart-innovators in Mashhad, are pioneers in electrical and computer technology.


    The language mainly spoken in Mashhad is Persian Mashhadi accent .

    CultureRelief in Tous depicting popular stories of Persian mythology, from the book of Shahnameh of Ferdowsi.Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tous.

    Long a center of secular and religious learning, Mashhad has been a center for the arts and for the sciences. The Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, named after the great Iranian poet, is located here. The Madrassa of Ayatollah Al-Khoei, originally built in the seventeenth century and recently replaced with modern facilities, is the city''s foremost traditional centre for religious learning. The Razavi University of Islamic Sciences, founded in 1984, stands at the centre of town, within the shrine complex. The prestige of traditional religious education at Mashhad attracts students, known as Talabeh, or "Mollah" internationally.

    Mashhad is also home to one of the oldest libraries of the Middle-East called the Central Library of Astan-e Quds Razavi with a history of over six centuries. The Astan-e Quds Razavi Museum, which is part of the Astan-e Quds Razavi Complex, is home to over 70,000 rare manuscripts from various historical eras. There are some six million historical documents in the foundation''s central library.

    In 1569 (977 H), ''Imad al-Din Mas''ud Shirazi, a physician at the Mashhad hospital, wrote the earliest Islamic treatise on syphilis, one influenced by European medical thought. Kashmar rug is a type of Persian rug indigenous to this region.

    Mashhad active galleries include: Mirak Gallery, Parse Gallery, Rezvan Gallery, Soroush Gallery, and the Narvan Gallery.

    Main sitesTous Museum

    Apart from Imam Reza shrine there is a number of large parks, the tombs of historical celebrities in nearby Tus and Nishapur, the tomb of Nadir Shah and Kooh Sangi park. The Koohestan Park-e-Shadi Complex includes a zoo, where many wild animals are kept and which attracts many visitors to Mashhad. It is also home to the Mashhad Airbase (formerly Imam Reza airbase), jointly a military installation housing Mirage aircraft, and a civilian international airport.

    Some points of interest lie outside the city: the tomb of Khajeh Morad, along the road to Tehran; the tomb of Khajeh Rabi'' located 6 kilometers north of the city where there are some inscriptions by the renowned Safavid calligrapher Reza Abbasi; and the tomb of Khajeh Abasalt, a distance of 20 kilometers from Mashhad along the road to Neishabur. (The three were all disciples of Imam Reza).

    Among the other sights are the tomb of the poet Ferdowsi in Tus, 24 kilometers distance, and the summer resorts at Torghabeh, Torogh, Akhlamad, Zoshk, and Shandiz.

    The Shah Public Bath, built during the Safavid era in 1648, is an outstanding example of the architecture of that period. It was recently restored, and is to be turned into a museum.


    TransportationMashhad Urban Railway (Line 1)Airport

    Mashhad is served by the Mashhad International Airport which handles domestic flights to Iranian cities and international flights, mostly to neighboring, Arab countries.The airport is the country''s second busiest only to Tehran Mehrabad Airport and above the famous Tehran''s Imam Khomeini International Airport.

    Metro Main article: Mashhad Light Rail

    The Mashhad Urban Railway Corporation (MURCO) is constructing a metro system for the city of Mashhad which includes four lines with 77 km length . The first phase (line) of the metro has been exploited in 21 Feb 2011 with 19 km length and 22 stations and will be connected to Mashhad International Airport. The second line with 14 km length and 12 stations is under construction and is projected to be finished by 2014.


    Mashhad is connected to three major rail lines: Tehran-Mashhad, Mashhad-Bafgh (running south), and Mashhad-Sarakhs at the border with Turkmenistan. Some freight trains continue from Sarakhs towards Uzbekistan and to Kazakhstan, but have to change bogies because of the difference in Rail gauge. A rail line is being constructed off the Mashhad-Bafgh line to connect Mashhad to Herat in Afghanistan, but has not yet been completed and one is planned to connect to the Gorgan railhead and the port of Bandar Torkaman on the Caspian Sea to the west. Passenger rail services are provided by Raja Passenger Trains Company and all trains are operated by R.A.I., Rah-Ahan (Railway) of Iran, the national railway company.

    Colleges and universities



    Shandiz Institute of Higher Education

    Major sport teams Club League Sport Venue Established Championships Padideh F.C. Mizan Khorasan VC Farsh Ara Mashhad FSC Ferdosi Mashhad FSC Rahahan Khorasan W.C.
    Iran Pro League Football Samen Stadium and Takhti Stadium (Mashhad) 2012 0
    Iranian Volleyball Super League Volleyball Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex 2010 0
    Iranian Futsal Super League Futsal Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex 1994
    Iranian Futsal Super League Futsal Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex 2011
    Iranian Premier Wrestling League Freestyle wrestling Mohammad Ali Sahraei Hall
    Mashhad as capital of Persia and Independent Khorasan

    The following Shahanshahs had Mashhad as their capital:

    Famous people from Mashhad and Tus See also: Category:People from MashhadReligious and political figuresWriters and scientistsArtistsScientistsSports figuresOthers Sister cities ConsulatesAfghan Consul General met with the Mayor of MashhadActive Former

    Tags:1968, Abbasi, Abbasid, Abu Muslim, Academic, Afghan, Afghanistan, Afshar, Agha Mohammad Khan, Ali Khamenei, Ali al-Sistani, American, Anousheh Ansari, Anvari, Arab, Arabia, Arabic, Armenian, Ashgabat, Ashura, Ayatollah, Azad, Azerbaijan, Baghdad, Baluch, Beheshti, Caspian, Caspian Sea, China, Dariush, Dariush Arjmand, Dutch, Dynasty, Ferdowsi, Ferdowsi University, Freestyle wrestling, French, Futsal, Geography, Germany, Ghalibaf, Goharshad, Goharshad Mosque, Golden Age, Gorgan, Greater Khorasan, Haji, Harun al-Rashid, Herat, Homa, Homayoun Shajarian, Hospital, Hossein Vahid Khorasani, Ibn, Imam, Imam Ali, Imam Khomeini, Imam Reza, Imam Reza shrine, Iran, Iran Darroudi, Iran Pro League, Iranian, Iraq, Isfahan, Islam, Islamic, Islamic Azad University, Islamic Republic, Islamic Republic of Iran, Ismaili, Italy, Jalali, Karachi, Kashmar, Kazakhstan, Khadem, Khajeh, Khamenei, Khan, Khatami, Khavaran, Khayyam, Khomeini, Khorasan, Kuala, Kuala Lumpur, Kufa, Kurdish, Kyrgyzstan, Lahore, MKO, Mahdi, Malaysia, Malek, Manouchehr, Manouchehr Eghbal, Marja, Mashhad, Mecca, Mehdi, Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, Mehrabad, Mehrabad Airport, Merv, Metropolitan, Middle Ages, Middle East, Milan, Mirza, Mitra, Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, Mohammad Khatami, Mohammad-Reza, Mongol, Morad, Muharram, Munich, Muslim, Nader Shah, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, National Security Council, Navid, North Khorasan, Ostad, Oxus, Oxus River, Pakistan, Persia, Persian, President, President of Iran, Prime Minister, Prime Minister of Iran, Qajar, Quds, Razavi Khorasan Province, Reza Enayati, Reza Ghoochannejhad, Reza Kianian, Reza Shah, Russia, Russian, Saeed Jalili, Safavid, Safavid Dynasty, Sarakhs, Saudi, Saudi Arabia, Scientists, Security Council, Seyyed, Shah, Shah Abbas, Shah Ismail, Shahnameh, Shahrukh Afshar, Sheikh, Shia, Shiite, Silk Road, Spain, Sport, Sunni, Supreme National Security Council, Tabriz, Tajikistan, Takhti, Tehran, Tehrani, Timur, Timurid, Timurid dynasty, Toos, Transoxiana, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tus, USA, USSR, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan, Vice President of Iran, Visa, Volleyball, Website, West Germany, Wikipedia, World Wide Web, World Wide Web Consortium, Wrestling, Zand

    See also items containing : Mashhad

    Related History Articles:

    Add definition or comments on Mashhad

    Your Name / Alias:
    Definition / Comments
    neutral points of view
    Source / SEO Backlink:
    Anti-Spam Check
    Enter text above
    Upon approval, your definition will be listed under: Mashhad

    Happy Summer Sale

    Home About us / Contact    Products    Services    Iranian History Today    Top Iran Links    Iranian B2B Web Directory    Historical Glossary
    Copyright @ 2004-2016 fouman.com All Rights Iranian