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    * Gorgan *

    Jorjan,Jurjan,Hyrcania,Astarabad

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    Gorgan_Golestan_Gonbad_Qabus_Tower.jpg
    Gorgan (formerly Astarabad) is the capital of the Golestan Province of Iran. Gorgan is approximately 400 km north east of Tehran, some 30 km away from shores of the Caspian Sea. About 150 km east of Gorgan is the Golestan National Park. The city has a regional airport and several universities. The surrounding area of Gorgan has a rich agriculture, producing mainly grains. Gorgan Airport was opened in September 2005.The name "Hyrcania" is the ancient Greek record of the local name in Old Persian name Varkana. The capital of Hyrcania was "Zadracarta", the largest city and site of the "royal palace" of Hyrcania, most probably located at the great mound of Ghaleh Kandan, on the western fringe of present-day Gorgan city. At the time of Sassanid Gorgan appeared as the name of a city, province capital, and a province.Hyrcania became part of the Persian Empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC). (Wikipedia) - Gorgan For other places with the same name, see Gorgan (disambiguation). "Astarabad" redirects here. For other uses, see Astarabad (disambiguation). Gorgan Gorgān Country Province County Bakhsh Government  • Governor of Gorgan Area  • Total Elevation Population (2006)  • Total  • Density Time zone  • Summer (DST)
    File:Gorgan tower.jpg
    Gorgan
    Coordinates: 36°50′19″N 54°26′05″E / 36.83861°N 54.43472°E / 36.83861; 54.43472Coordinates: 36°50′19″N 54°26′05″E / 36.83861°N 54.43472°E / 36.83861; 54.43472
     Iran
    Golestan
    Gorgan
    Central
    Jaafar Gorzin
    1,700 km2 (656 sq mi)
    1,350 m (4,430 ft)
    269,226
    160/km2 (410/sq mi)
    IRST (UTC+03:30)
    IDST (UTC+04:30)
    Gorgan at GEOnet Names Server

    Gorgan  pronunciation (help·info) (Persian: Gorgān‎, Turkmen: Gurgan ; also Romanized as Gorgān and Gūrgān; Caspian: Wergen; formerly, Astarabad (Persian: Astarābad‎, also Romanized as Asterābād), is the capital of Golestan Province, Iran. It lies approximately 400 km (250 mi) to the north east of Tehran, some 30 km (19 mi) away from the Caspian Sea. At the 2006 census, its population was 269,226, in 73,702 families.

    Some 150 km (93 mi) east of Gorgan is the Golestan National Park. The city has a regional airport and several universities. Gorgan Airport was opened in September 2005.

    Contents

    Etymology

    The city was named Hyrcania, Hyrcani or Hyrcana in ancient Greek records, which comes from Pahlavi Varkâna -- "Land of the Wolves". Although modern Gorgan is only a city and county (sharing the same name), ancient Hyrcania was the name of a greater region on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (encompassing all of the present day Golestan province, as well as some eastern parts of the Mazandaran province, and some southern parts of the present day Republic of Turkmenistan). In modern times and until 1937 the city used to be known as Astarabad.

    Geography and climate

    The wide Dasht-e Gorgan (Plains of Gorgan) are located north of the city and geographically bounded by 37°00'' - 37°30'' north latitude and 54°00'' - 54°30'' east longitude, covering an area of about 1,700 square kilometres (660 sq mi).

    In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate." The effective factors behind such a climate are: Alborz mountain range, direction of the mountains, height of the area, neighborhood to the sea, vegetation surface, local winds, altitude and weather fronts. As a result of the above factors, three different climates exist in the region: plain moderate, mountainous, and semi-arid. Gorgan valley has a semi-arid climate. The average annual temperature is 18.2 °C (64.8 °F) and the annual rainfall is 600 millimetres (24 in).

    Climate data for Gorgan Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) Average high °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Record low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)  % humidity Mean monthly sunshine hours
    29 (84) 32.4 (90.3) 35 (95) 39 (102) 43 (109) 45 (113) 44 (111) 44 (111) 41.6 (106.9) 39 (102) 36 (97) 29.2 (84.6) 45 (113)
    12.4 (54.3) 13.1 (55.6) 15.3 (59.5) 21.2 (70.2) 26.9 (80.4) 30.9 (87.6) 32.6 (90.7) 32.7 (90.9) 29.9 (85.8) 24.8 (76.6) 18.8 (65.8) 14.3 (57.7) 22.74 (72.93)
    3.4 (38.1) 3.8 (38.8) 6.1 (43) 10.7 (51.3) 15.5 (59.9) 19.9 (67.8) 22.8 (73) 22.9 (73.2) 19.6 (67.3) 13.9 (57) 8.9 (48) 5.2 (41.4) 12.73 (54.9)
    −10 (14) −6 (21) −3.2 (26.2) 0 (32) 2.8 (37) 10 (50) 15 (59) 13 (55) 9 (48) 3 (37) −2 (28) −7 (19) −10 (14)
    55.0 (2.165) 55.8 (2.197) 79.4 (3.126) 52.8 (2.079) 44.1 (1.736) 33.4 (1.315) 22.2 (0.874) 27.3 (1.075) 38.9 (1.531) 66.1 (2.602) 68.5 (2.697) 57.5 (2.264) 601 (23.661)
    7.4 8.0 10.5 8.0 6.1 4.2 3.7 4.2 5.2 5.7 6.7 6.8 76.5
    73 73 74 72 67 64 65 68 69 70 73 74 70.2
    135.3 128.1 132.3 164.6 207.6 220.4 221.9 220.5 196.3 196.4 151.1 132.8 2,107.3
    Source: Synoptic Stations Statistics
    History Main article: HyrcaniaGorgan CeramicGorgan Ceramic in Tabriz Museum

    The name Hyrcania is the ancient Greek equivalent of the local name in Old Persian, Varkâna. The Sanskrit word for "wolf", Vŗka (वृक) may be a cognate. The capital of Hyrcania was Zadracarta, the largest city and site of the "royal palace" of Hyrcania.According to Arrian, this was the largest city of Hyrcania. The term signifies, " the yellow city "; and it was given to it from the great number of oranges, lemons, and other fruit trees which grew in the outskirts of that city. At the time of the Sassanids,Gorgan appeared as the name of a city, province capital, and province.

    Hyrcania became part of the Persian empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC) - the first emperor of the first Persian imperial dynasty, the Achaemenids - or his successor Cambyses (530-522 BC). It maintained its independence as a Zoroastrian state even after Persia was conquered by Arabs in 8th century and by Mongols in the 13th century.

    Culture

    Gorgan (as well as the whole Golestan province) has a world-famous carpet and rug industry, made by Turkmen. The patterns of these carpets are derived from the ancient Persian city of Bukhara, which is now in Uzbekistan. Jajim carpets are also crafted in this province.

    Notable people

    Tags:Alborz, Astarabad, Bukhara, Cambyses, Caspian, Caspian Sea, Cyrus, Cyrus the Great, Golestan, Golestan Province, Gorgan, Governor, Greek, Hyrcania, Iran, Jajim, Mazandaran, Old Persian, Pahlavi, Persia, Persian, Persian Empire, Sanskrit, Sassanid, Tabriz, Tehran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Wikipedia, Zoroastrian


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