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    * Birjand *

    بیرجند ، بیرجند


    Birjand_City_River_1900s.jpg
    Birjand is the capital of the South Khorasan province. Birjand is famous for its saffron, barberry, rug and handmade carpet exports. Birjand has a dry climate with significant difference between day and night temperatures. It is a fast growing city.The area used to be called Sagarthia. In 13th century Birjand was cited as the most beautiful town in the Quhestan. The oldest evidence on the history of the region is the ancient Lakh-Mazar inscription in the Kooch village about 25 km south east of Birjand. Numerous fine drawings and inscriptions are carved on an igneous rock surface. The inscriptions include pictograms as well as Arsacid, Sassanid Pahlavi, Arabic and Persian scripts. Birjand has emerged as the centre of Quhestan, following the decline of historical city of Qaen in the Safavid period. Since then the Alam clan had ruled the region till the end of Qajar dynasty. During the semi-autonomous ruling of Alam clan, Great Britain and Russia established consular branches in Birjand, because of the important geographical location of the region in the vicinity of the Indian subcontinent. Amir Shokatolmolk Alam, the father of the Asadollah Alam (once Prime Minister of Iran) was still ruling the Quhestan sub province Qhaenat into the Pahlavi era. And the last tribal leader of Birjand Shah Seyyed Ali Kazemi was related with the Alam clan and the emperor Reza Shah Pahlavi. However Birjand lost its geopolitical importance following the emergence of Reza Shah Pahlavi and his policy of central government. The entire Quhestan region then became a part of the modern Khorasan province. The local people, however, started a movement to become an independent province at the middle of the second Pahlavi period. The move resulted after about forty years and Quhestan and particularly Birjand regained its historical importance in 2004 after official division of Khorasan to three smaller provinces during presidency of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. (Wikipedia) - Birjand For the administrative subdivision, see Birjand County. Birjand بیرجند (Persian) Country Province County Bakhsh First mention Elevation Population (2012)  • City  • Density  • Urban  • Metro Time zone  • Summer (DST) Area code(s) Website
    Nickname(s): City of Pines, City of Culture
    Birjand
    Coordinates: 32°52′N 59°12′E / 32.867°N 59.200°E / 32.867; 59.200Coordinates: 32°52′N 59°12′E / 32.867°N 59.200°E / 32.867; 59.200
     Iran
    South Khorasan
    Birjand
    Central
    13th century
    1,491 m (4,892 ft)
    179,686
    3,697/km2 (9,580/sq mi)
    302,168
    248,623
    IRST (UTC+3:30)
    IDST (UTC+4:30)
    (+98) 561
    www.birjand.ir/
    Prefix code: +98 Iran - (0)561 Birjand

    Birjand (Persian: بیرجند‎  pronunciation (help·info), also Romanized as Bīrjand and Birdjand) is the east Iranian provincial capital of South Khorasan and the centre of the county Birjand resp. Quhestan, known for its saffron, barberry, rug and handmade carpet exports. The city of Birjand had a population of 157,848 people at the time of the last official census in 2006.

    Being close to the Afghanistan border, Birjand is located on the "Silk Road" of opium smuggled from Afghanistan on the way to Europe (also dubbed the "opium crescent").

    The city has a dry climate with significant difference between day and night temperatures. It is a fast-growing city, thus becoming one of the major centres in the East of Iran.

    Contents
    • 1 History
    • 2 Climate
    • 3 Education
    • 4 Birjand Airport
    • 5 Notables from Birjand
    • 6 See also
    • 7 References
    • 8 External links

    HistoryCossacks in Birjand, circa 1909.

    The first citation of the city in the historical literature returns to the famous book Mojem Alboldan, by Yaqut Homavi (13th century) which introduces the Birjand as the most beautiful town in the Quhestan. Before this Birjand had been probably not as big and important as a municipality but a rural community. However, the Birjand geographical area has had its historical and political importance long before emergence of the city of Birjand. Many citations of the region are available in the original literature like Ehya -ol- Molook of the once important localities in the area. Apart from literature, the oldest evidence on the history of the region is the ancient Lakh-Mazar inscription in the Kooch village some 25 km (16 mi) south east of Birjand. Numerous fine drawings and inscriptions are carved on an igneous rock surface. The inscriptions include pictograms as well as Arsacid Pahlavi, Sasanian Pahlavi, Arabic and Persian scripts. The former tribe famous for the region of Birjand is called Sagarthian - historically in union with the Parthian.

    Birjand has emerged as the centre of Quhestan, following the decline of historical city of Qaen in the Safavid period. Since then the Alam clan had ruled the region till the end of Qajar dynasty. During the semi-autonomous ruling of Alam clan, Great Britain and Russia established consular branches in Birjand, because of the important geographical location of the region in the vicinity of the Indian subcontinent. Amir Shokat Ul-Molk Alam, the father of the Asadollah Alam(once prime minister of Iran) was still ruling the Quhestan''s subprovince Qhaenat into the Pahlavi era. And the last tribal leader of Birjand Shah Seyyed Ali Kazemi was related with the Alam clan and the emperor Reza Shah Pahlavi. However Birjand lost its geopolitical importance following the emergence of Reza Shah Pahlavi and his policy of central government.

    The entire Quhestan region then became a part of the modern Khorasan province. The local people, however, started a movement to become an independent province at the middle of the second Pahlavi period. The move resulted after about forty years and Quhestan and particularly Birjand regained its historical importance in 2004 after official division of Khorasan to three smaller provinces by the government of Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Climate

    Birjand has a cold desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWk) with hot summers and cool winters. Precipitation is low, and mostly falls in winter and spring.

    Climate data for Birjand Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) Average high °C (°F) Daily mean °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Record low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Avg. rainy days Avg. snowy days  % humidity Mean monthly sunshine hours
    25.0 (77) 27.0 (80.6) 32.0 (89.6) 36.0 (96.8) 40.0 (104) 43.0 (109.4) 44.0 (111.2) 42.0 (107.6) 39.2 (102.6) 36.0 (96.8) 29.0 (84.2) 25.0 (77) 44 (111.2)
    11.0 (51.8) 13.1 (55.6) 18.8 (65.8) 24.7 (76.5) 30.6 (87.1) 35.2 (95.4) 35.6 (96.1) 34.3 (93.7) 31.7 (89.1) 26.6 (79.9) 19.7 (67.5) 13.4 (56.1) 24.6 (76.2)
    4.0 (39.2) 6.2 (43.2) 11.7 (53.1) 17.6 (63.7) 23.3 (73.9) 27.9 (82.2) 28.8 (83.8) 26.8 (80.2) 23.1 (73.6) 17.5 (63.5) 10.8 (51.4) 5.8 (42.4) 16.96 (62.52)
    −2.3 (27.9) −0.3 (31.5) 4.4 (39.9) 9.6 (49.3) 13.9 (57) 17.9 (64.2) 19.7 (67.5) 17.1 (62.8) 12.1 (53.8) 7.3 (45.1) 2.2 (36) −1.2 (29.8) 8.4 (47.1)
    −16.5 (2.3) −14.7 (5.5) −12 (10) −4.5 (23.9) 0.0 (32) 7.0 (44.6) 10.2 (50.4) 6.6 (43.9) 1.0 (33.8) −5.6 (21.9) −11 (12) −15.8 (3.6) −16.5 (2.3)
    31.3 (1.232) 32.4 (1.276) 35.1 (1.382) 31.6 (1.244) 7.1 (0.28) 0.3 (0.012) 0.1 (0.004) 0.2 (0.008) 0.0 (0) 2.6 (0.102) 8.4 (0.331) 19.7 (0.776) 168.8 (6.647)
    7.9 8.3 9.2 8.0 3.6 0.7 0.4 0.2 0.3 1.6 3.3 6.3 49.8
    2.6 1.7 0.3 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 1.1 6
    57 55 46 38 27 21 21 22 22 28 39 52 35.7
    196.3 188.3 211.4 231.8 303.4 334.8 347.2 349.3 298.2 286.0 229.6 195.8 3,172.1
    Source: NOAA (1961–1990)
    Education

    It is said that the Shokatiyeh School in Birjand together with Darolfonoon in Tehran were the first modern public schools of higher education in Iran in the mid-19th century. Ever since then, Birjand has amassed an abundance of institutions of higher education and become an important location for research and development.

    The city contains such universities and academic institutions as:

    Aerial view of Birjand, Left to right: Pasdaran St., Adl St., Moallem St. and Ghafari St., 2006Birjand Airport

    Birjand Airport is placed in suburban region of Birjand. Due to the geopolitical eminence of Birjand in the eastern parts of Iran, Birjand airport started operation in 1933 as the 3rd operational airport in Iran. Birjand airport offers non-stop daily flights to Tehran and Mashhad. It became an international airport after the first international flight to Medina, KSA in June 2008. In October 2009, runway 10/28 was closed for fundamental repair. The runway was strengthened, re-carpeted and extended to 4000 meters to accommodate wide-body aircraft. During the construction phase all flights were suspended while Aseman Airline utilized the older runway (08/26) and started daily flights to Tehran.

    Notables from Birjand
    • Abd al-Ali al-Birjandi, Prominent Astronomer of the 16th Century
    • Hakim Nezari Quhestani
    • Ibn Hessam Khusfi
    • Amir Shokat Ul-Molk Alam, Amir of Qaen County and Governor of Quhestan at the end of Qajar Dynasty
    • Amir Ali Khan Sheibany, PhD, Founder and First CEO of Zob Ahan Esfahan (Esfahan Steel Company)
    • Seyyed Mohammad Tadayyon
    • Asadollah Alam, Prime Minister of Iran during Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi period
    • Seyyed Gholam Reza Saeidi, Writer
    • Mohamad Haghgou, Composer
    • Sima Bina, Singer of Iranian folk music
    • Ahmad Kamyabi Mask, writer and renowned theater scholar
    • Morteza Hassanpour, The first man in nursing in Iran
    • Mohammad Hassan Ganji, Scientist of Geography
    • Mohammad Ismail Rezvani, Scientist of Histor
    • Mohammad Reza Hafeznia
    • Gholam Hossein Shokouei
    Band Darreh, 5km South of Birjand
    • Kazem Motamadnejad
    • Shah Seyyed Ali Kazemi, Last tribal leader in Mood and Birjand at the beginning of Pahlavi Dynasty
    • Mohammad Hossain Ayati
    • Mohammad Ibrahim Ayati
    • Seyyed Hassan Tahami

    Tags:Afghanistan, Ahmadinejad, Alam, Arabic, Arsacid, Asadollah Alam, Azad, Birjand, Birjand County, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Britain, Darolfonoon, Dynasty, Esfahan, Europe, Governor, Hakim, Ibn, Iran, Iranian, Islamic, Islamic Azad University, Islamic Republic, Islamic Republic of Iran, Khan, Khorasan, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Mashhad, Medina, Pahlavi, Pahlavi Dynasty, Parthian, Pasdaran, Persian, PhD, Prime Minister, Prime Minister of Iran, Qajar, Reza Pahlavi, Reza Shah, Russia, Safavid, Sassanid, Science, Seyyed, Shah, Shokatolmolk, Silk Road, South Khorasan, Tehran, Website, Wikipedia


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