Collective Iranian Culturebase

Alphabetic Index : A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Search Engine(β):


United Kingdom,The Old Fox


Country in northwestern Europe consisting of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. UK as one of last reminents of colonial Britain has been seen as a hostile state towards Iran since 1952.
UK is a constitutional monarchy with two legislative houses; its chief of state is the sovereign, and the head of government is Prime Minister. The early pre-Roman inhabitants of Britain were Celtic-speaking peoples, including the Brythonic people of Wales, the Picts of Scotland, and the Britons of Britain. Celts also settled in Ireland с 500 B.C. Julius Caesar took control of the area in 55-54 B.C. The Roman province of Britannia endured until the 5th century AD and included present-day England and Wales.
In the 5th century Nordic tribes of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes invaded Britain. The invasions had little effect on the Celtic peoples of Wales and Scotland. Christianity began to flourish in the 6th century. During the 8th and 9th centuries, Vikings, particularly Danes, raided the coasts of Britain. In the late 9th century Alfred the Great repelled a Danish invasion, which helped bring about the unification of England under Athelstan. The Scots attained dominance in Scotland, which was finally unified under Malcolm II (1005-34). William of Normandy took England in 1066. The Norman kings established a strong central government and feudal state. The French language of the Norman rulers eventually merged with the Anglo-Saxon of the common people to form the English language.
From the 11th century, Scotland came under the influence of the English throne. Henry II conquered Ireland in the late 12th century. His sons Richard I and John had conflicts with the clergy and nobles, and eventually John was forced to grant the nobles concessions in the Magna Carta (1215). The concept of community of the realm developed during the 13th century, providing the foundation for parliamentary government. During the reign of Edward I, statute law developed to supplement English common law, and the first Parliament was convened. In 1314 Robert the Bruce won independence for Scotland. The house of Tudor became the ruling family of England following the Wars of the Roses (1455-85). Henry VIII established the Church of England and incorporated Wales as part of England.
The reign of Elizabeth I began a period of colonial expansion; in 1588 British forces defeated the invincible Spanish Armada. In 1603 James VI of Scotland ascended to the English throne, becoming James I, and established a personal union of the two kingdoms. The English Civil Wars erupted in 1642 between Royalists and Parliamentarians, ending in the execution of Charles I (1649). After 11 years of Puritan rule under Oliver Cromwell and his son (1649-60), the monarchy was restored with Charles II. In 1689, following the Glorious Revolution, Parliament proclaimed the joint sovereigns William III and Mary II, who accepted the British Bill of Rights. In 1707 England and Scotland assented to the Act of Union, forming the kingdom of Great Britain. The Hanoverians ascended to the English throne in 1714, when George Louis, elector of Hanover, became George I of Great Britain. During the reign of George III, Great Britain's North American colonies won independence (1783). This was followed by a period of war with Revolutionary France and later with the empire of Napoleon (1789-1815).
In 1801 legislation united Great Britain with Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Britain was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century, and it remained the world's foremost economic power until the late 19th century. During the reign of Queen Victoria, Britain's colonial expansion reached its zenith, though the older dominions, including Canada and Australia, were granted independence (1867 and 1901, respectively). The United Kingdom entered World War I allied with France and Russia in 1914. Following the war, revolutionary disorder erupted in Ireland, and in 1921 the Irish Free State was granted dominion status. The six counties of Ulster, however, remained in the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom entered World War II in 1939. Following the war, the Irish Free State became the Irish republic and left the Commonwealth. India also gained independence from the United Kingdom. Throughout the postwar period and into the 1970s, the United Kingdom continued to grant independence to its overseas colonies and dependencies. With UN forces, it participated in the Korean War (1950-53). In 1956 it intervened militarily in Egypt during the Suez Crisis. It joined the European Economic Community, a forerunner of the European Union, in 1973. In 1982 it defeated Argentina in the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands War. As a result of continuing social strife in Northern Ireland, it joined with Ireland in several peace initiatives, which eventually resulted in an agreement to establish an assembly in Northern Ireland.
In 1997 referenda approved in Scotland and Wales devolved power to both countries, though both remained part of the United Kingdom. In 1991 the United Kingdom joined an international coalition to reverse Iraq's conquest of Kuwait. In 2003 the United Kingdom and the U.S. invaded Iraq and overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein, which they had accused of aiding terrorists and possessing and developing WMD.

See Also:United Kingdom

See All 3 items matching UK in Media Gallery

Iranian Embassy in London/ UK severely damaged by fire after a terrorist Attack in May, 1980. After a decade the British government agreed to repair the damage to the embassy in London only if Iran would pay for repairs to the British embassy in Tehran,
Mahan Air Airbus A300B4-600 (EP-MNR) Landing at Birmingham International Airport, UK 2011.Mahan Air is a private airline that operates domestic and international flights to the Far East, Middle East, Central Asia, and Europe since 1991.
A Protesting student sets a vehicle with diplomatic license plate on fire at cultural branch of the British Embassy in Gholhak, Tehran on Nov, 29, 2011, a day after Majlis voted to severe diplomatic ties with UK.

See also items containing :UK

Related History Articles:

Add definition or comments on UK

Your Name / Alias:
Definition / Comments
neutral points of view
Source / SEO Backlink:
Anti-Spam Check
Enter text above
Upon approval, your definition will be listed under: UK

Happy Norooz 1393

Home About us / Contact    Products    Services    Iranian History Today    Top Iran Links    Iranian B2B Web Directory    Historical Glossary
Copyright @ 2004-2013 All Rights Iranian