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Shah

شاه ، پادشاه‌


Kermanshah_Taghebostan_Pool.jpg
king of Iran, sovereign in Iran (prior to the Islamic Revolution) (Wikipedia) - Shah Royal and noble ranks in Iran, Pakistan, Nepal and India
Shah : Emperor
High King
King : Sultan
Royal Prince : Shahzada, Mirza
Noble Prince : Sahibzada
Nobleman: Nawab, Baig
This article is about the title given to the emperors/kings and lords of Iran. For other uses, see Shah (disambiguation). "Shahanshah" redirects here. For the village in Iran, see Shahanshah, Lorestan. Not to be confused with Shahenshah.

Šâh (/ˈʃɑː/; Persian: شاه‎, , "king") is a title given to the emperors/kings and lords of Iran a.k.a. Persia. In Iran (Persia and Greater Persia) the title was continuously used; rather than King in the European sense, each Persian ruler regarded himself as the Šâhanšâh (King of Kings) or Emperor of the Persian Empire. In Pakistan and India, the title was used by Mughal rulers. The word descends from Old Persian Xšâyathiya "king", which (for reasons of historical phonology) must be a borrowing from Median, and is derived from the same root as Avestan xšaΘra-, "power" and "command", corresponding to Sanskrit (Old Indic) kṣatra- (same meaning), from which kṣatriya-, "warrior", is derived. The full, Old Persian title of the Achaemenid rulers of the First Persian Empire was Xšâyathiya Xšâyathiyânâm or Šâhe Šâhân, "King of Kings" or "Emperor". The Indian surname Shah has a different source.

Contents

HistoryMohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran from 1941 to 1979

Šâh, or Shāhanshāh (King of Kings) to use the full-length term, was the title of the Persian emperors. It includes rulers of the first Persian Empire, the Achaemenid dynasty, who unified Persia and created a vast intercontinental empire, as well as rulers of succeeding dynasties throughout history until the twentieth century and the Imperial House of Pahlavi. The title was also extensively used by emperors of the Indian subcontinent, including those of the Mughal Empire. For instance, the third Mughal emperor, Akbar the Great (1542–1605), was formally known as "Shahanshah Akbar-e-Azam".

The full title of the Achaemenid rulers was XšāyaΘiya XšāyaΘiyānām, literally "King of Kings" in Old Persian, corresponding to Middle Persian Šāhān Šāh, and Modern Persian شاهنشاه (Shāhanshāh). In Greek, this phrase was translated as "βασιλεύς τῶν βασιλέων (basileus tōn basiléōn)", "King of Kings", equivalent to Emperor. Both terms were often shortened to their roots shah and basileus.

In Western languages, Shah is often used as an imprecise rendering of Shāhanshāh. The term was first recorded in English in 1564 as a title for the King of Persia and with the spelling "Shaw". For a long time, Europeans thought of Shah as a particular royal title rather than an imperial one, although the monarchs of Persia regarded themselves as emperors of the Persian Empire (later the Empire of Iran). The European opinion changed in the Napoleonic era, when Persia was an ally of the Western powers eager to make the Ottoman Sultan release his hold on various (mainly Christian) European parts of the Ottoman Empire, and western (Christian) emperors had obtained the Ottoman acknowledgement that their western imperial styles were to be rendered in Turkish as padishah.

In the twentieth century, the Shah of Persia, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, officially adopted the title شاهنشاه Shâhanshâh and, in western languages, the rendering Emperor. He also styled his wife شهبانو Shahbânu (Empress). Iran no longer had a shah after the 1979 Islamic Revolution.

Ruler styles Shahzada

Shahzada (Persian شاهزاده Šāhzādeh). In the realm of a shah (or a more lofty derived ruler style), a prince or princess of the blood was logically called shahzada as the term is derived from shah using the Persian patronymic suffix -zādeh or -zāda, "born from" or "descendant of". However the precise full styles can differ in the court traditions of each shah''s kingdom. In the Indian sub-continent, female descendants or princesses are called Shahzadi but in the original Persian, it is a gender neutral word.

Thus, in Oudh, only sons of the sovereign shah bahadur (see above) were by birth-right styled "Shahzada Mirza Bahadur", though this style could also be extended to individual grandsons and even further relatives. Other male descendants of the sovereign in the male line were merely styled "Mirza " or " Mirza". This could even apply to non-Muslim dynasties. For example, the younger sons of the ruling Sikh maharaja of Punjab were styled "Shahzada Singh Bahadur".

The corruption shahajada, "Shah''s son", taken from the Mughal title Shahzada, is the usual princely title borne by the grandsons and male descendants of a Nepalese sovereign, in the male line.

For the heir to a "Persian-style" shah''s royal throne, more specific titles were used, containing the key element Vali Ahad, usually in addition to shahzada, where his junior siblings enjoyed this style.

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See All 43 items matching Shah in Media Gallery

Tileworks bearing a picture of Ahmad Shah the last king of the Qajar Dynasty in Moghaddam Museum.
Iranian revolution key political figues Ayatollah Taleghani, Ayatollah Beheshti, Hojjatoleslam Rafsanjani, and Abolhasan Banisadr taking a souvenir photo while Shah's statue is being tore down in the background in a square in Tehran, 1979.
Miran Shah (1366 – 16 April 1408) was a son of Teimur Lang, and a Teimurid (Goorkani) governor during his father's lifetime.Toos, the famous birthplace of Ferdowsi was destroyed by Miran Shah, Painting opaque watercolor and gold on paper (1875 - 1900)
Second Pahlavi king, Young Mohammad Reza Shah, the last shah of Iran (1941-79),  soon after his accession to the throne at the age of 21. After abdication of his father Reza Shah by invading Allied Powers in 1941 he became the puppet king.
First Iranian bank note worth 10 Irls with Mohammadreza Shah's photo
Mohammadreza Shah Farah Diba Engagement

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