پرسپولیس ، تخت جمشید،پارسه خشتر
Perspolis is an ancient
Iranian city, northeast of modern
Shiraz. It was built in a remote and mountainous area during the reign of
Dariush I, who made it the ceremonial capital of
Pasargadae. In 330 BC Alexander plundered the city and burned it. The city's ruins cover an extensive area and comprise a number of colossal buildings, including palaces of early
Persian kings, a great staircase, an audience hall, and a treasury.
Archaeological evidence shows that the earliest remains of
Persepolis date from around 515 BC.
Dariush ordered the construction of the
Apadana Palace and the Council Hall (the three-gated hall), the main imperial Treasury and its surroundings. These were completed during the reign of his son, King
Xerxes the Great. Further construction of the buildings on the terrace continued until the downfall of the
Persepolis is near the small river Poolvar, which flows into the river Koor. The site includes a 125,000 square meter terrace, partly artificially constructed and partly cut out of a mountain, with its east side leaning on Kooh-e
Mehr. The other three sides are formed by retaining walls, which vary in height with the slope of the ground. From 5 to 13 meters on the west side a double stair gently slopes to the top. To create the level terrace, depressions were filled with soil and heavy rocks, which were joined together with metal clips.
Around 518 BC, construction of a broad stairway was begun. The stairway was planned to be the main entrance to the terrace 20 meters above the ground. The dual stairway was built in symmetrically on the western side of the great wall. The 111 steps were 6.9 meters wide with treads of 31 cm and rises of 10 cm. Originally; the steps were believed to have been constructed to allow for nobles and royalty to ascend by horseback. New theories suggest that the shallow risers allowed visiting dignitaries to maintain a regal appearance while ascending. The top of the stairways led to a small yard in the north-eastern side of the terrace, opposite the Gate of Nations.
Grey limestone was the main building material used in Persepolis. After natural rock had been leveled and the depressions filled in, the terrace was prepared. Major tunnels for sewage were dug underground through the rock. A large elevated water storage tank was carved at the eastern foot of the mountain.
The uneven plan of the foundation of the terrace acted like a castle whose angled walls enabled its defenders to target any section of the external front.